20 terms

2.1 - Experimental Methods - Research Methods

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Independent groups / measures
Participants are randomly allocated to different conditions and then their results are compared
Quasi Experiment
A study in which there is an independent variable but this cannot be manipulated by the researcher, as the groups are naturally occurring. E.g. The independent variable could be gender or country of birth. Can be conducted in a lab or natural setting.
Individual Differences
Characteristics that may vary from participant to participant and can impact upon results, e.g. IQ or preferences.
Experimental Controls
Variables which are kept constant to ensure only the independent variable has an effect on the dependent variable.
Experimental Design
How participants are allocated to the different conditions in the experiment.
Hypothesis
A testable statement.
Field Experiment
A study involving manipulation of an independent variable, conducted in a natural setting.
Independent Variable
The variable in the experiment that is deliberately and systematically manipulated so that its effects on the DV can be observed and measured.
Control Condition
A constant and unchanging standard of comparison within the study.
Dependent Variable
The factor that is affected by the manipulation of the IV. It is the outcome measure in an experiment.
Order Effects
Differences in participants' responses that have occurred due to the sequence in which the experimental materials/conditions are presented to them. E.g. practice effects improving results or fatigue/boredom affecting results negatively.
Variable
An element or factor that is liable to change/can be changed
Matched Pairs
Participants are matched on the basis of key characteristics relevant to the research question, then the pairs are split into groups, with one participant from each pair being placed into each condition.
Natural Experiment
A study in which there is an independent variable but this is not manipulated by the researcher - it occurs naturally. Conducted in a natural/everyday setting.
Standardisation
Keeping everything in an experiment the same for every participant to ensure the investigation is valid.
Repeated Measures
All participants take part in all conditions and then their results are compared.
Counterbalancing
An experimental control. All possible orders of undertaking the conditions are included (e.g. ABBA), to prevent order effects, such as practice or fatigue.
Participants
Individuals taking part in a study.
Random Allocation
Dividing participants into the experimental conditions in a way that results in every member of the population having an equal chance of being selected. E.g. the lottery method.
Laboratory Experiment
A study involving manipulation of an independent variable, conducted under tightly controlled conditions.