CISSP Final Prep - Shane
Terms in this set (60)
What is the Biba Security Model
A security model that describes a set of access control rules designed to addresses the INTEGRITY of data w/in a system. This model is NOT concerned with security levels or confidentiality.
3 Main Rules:
1 - *-integrity axiom (no write up) - A subject cannot write data to an object at a higher integrity level
2 - Simple integrity axiom (no read down) - a subject cannot read data from a lower integrity level.
3 - A subject can not request service (invoke) at a higher integrity
(note: "simple means reading, * or "star" means writing)
What is the Clark Wilson Security Model
Integrity Security model that protects the INTEGRITY of data and ensures properly formatted transactions take place with a focus on WELL FORMED TRANSACTIONS and SEPERATION OF DUTIES
each data item and allows modifications through only a small set of programs. The model uses a three-part relationship of subject/program/object (where program is interchangeable with transaction) known as a triple or an access control triple. Within this relationship, subjects do not have direct access to objects. Objects can only be accessed through programs. Look here to see how this differs from other access control models.
-Subjects can only access objects through authorized programs (access triple)
- Seperation of Duties is Enforced
-Auditing is Required
What is the Brewer and Nash Security Model (also called the Chinese Wall Security Model)
Security model that can write to an object if and ONLY IF it can NOT read another object in a different data set.
Provides access controls that can change dynamically depending on a user's previous actions.
Primary goal is to protect against conflicts of interest by user's access attempts.
How is RESIDUAL RISK calculated
(threats x vulnerability x asset value) x controls gap = ----- RISK
How is TOTAL RISK calculated
threats x vulnerability x asset value = ------ RISK
What is the formula for SLE (Single Loss Expectancy
asset value x exposure factor (EF) = SLE
What is an EXPOSURE FACTOR (EF) in RISK ANALYSIS
Represents the percentage of a loss a realized threat could have on a certain asset.
How is the ANNUALIZED RATE OF OCCURRENCE (ARO) calculated
SLE x ARO = ALE
Single Loss Expectancy (SLE) x Annualized Rate of Occurrence (ARO) = Annual Loss Expectancy
List 7 Asymmetric Encryption Alogrithms
1 - The Diffie-Hellman Algorithm
2 - RSA
3 - El Gamal
4 - Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems
5 - LUC
6 - Knapsack
7 - Zero Knowledge Proof
List 11 Symmetric Algorithms
1 - DES (Data Encryption Standard) 56 bits
2 - DES - 3-DES Keys
3 - AES (128, 192, 256 bits)
4 - IDEA (International Data Encryption Alogrithm) 128 bits
5 - Blowfish - up to 448 bits
6 - Twofish - up to 256 bits
7 - RC4 (variable) - stream cipher
8 - RC5 & RC6 - up to 2048 bits
9 - CAST 40, 64, 128, 256 bits
10- SAFER - block cipher developed by co-creator or IDEA
11 - Serpent - Runner-up cipher in AES competition
What is the NIST 800-30
Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems is a U.S. federal standard that is focused on IT risks. Provides guidance for conducting risk assessments of federal information systems and organizations
What is is OCTAVE
(Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation)
security framework for determining risk level and planning defenses against cyber assaults. The framework defines a methodology to help ORGANIZATIONS minimize exposure to likely threats, determine the likely consequences of an attack and deal with attacks that succeed.
What are Administrative Controls? (commercial)
What are Management Controls? (government)
Commonly referred to as SOFT CONTROLS because they are MANAGEMENT ORIENTED.
What are Physical controls (commercial)
What are Operational Controls (government)
Type of controls that include:
- security guards
- environment controls
What are Technical Controls? (commercial & gov)
(aka LOGICAL CONTROLS)
software / hardware controls
-encryption, identification, authentication mechanisms
What is the COBIT
(Control Objective for Information & related Technology)
Framework for organizations to optimize the value of IT by balancing RESOURCE UTILIZATION, RISK LEVELS,. This framework explicitly ties STAKEHOLDER NEEDS AND ORGANIZATION GOALS to IT GOALS.
Based on 5 Key Principles:
1) Meeting Stakeholder Needs
2) Covering the Enterprise End to End
3) Applying a single integrated framework
4) Enabling a holistic approach
5) Separating governance from management
Symmetric Cryptography (more)
History of Crypto
Symmetric vs Asymmetric
Components of Cryptography
(Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria)
a structured set of criteria for evaluating computer security within products and systems. The ______was first published in May 1990 in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom
Largely replace by COMMON CRITERIA
What is the Bell-LaPadula Model
Security model that enforces the CONFIDENTIALITY aspects of access control. FIRST MATHEMATICAL model of a MULTILEVEL SECURITY POLICY.
3 Main Rules:
- Simple Security Rule (no read up)
- *-property (star property) (no write down)
-Strong star property rule (to read/write, subjects clearance and objects classification must be equal)
What is the COMMON CRITERIA framework?
(Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation)
International standard (ISO/IEC 15408) framework with 7 Assurance levels, which users specify security requirements and vendors claim they can satisfy requirements and independent labs verify claims.
7 Security Levels:
- EAL1 - Functionally tested
- EAL2 - Structurally tested
- EAL3 - Methodically tested & checked
- EAL4 - Methodically designed, tested, reviewed
- EAL5 - Semi-formally designed & tested
- EAL6 - Semi-formally verified design & tested
- EAL7 - Formally (mathematically) verified design and tested
What is the ORANGE BOOK
Trusted Computer System Evaluation (TCSEC)
(TCSEC) is a United States Government DoD standard.
sets basic requirements for assessing the effectiveness of computer security controls built into a computer system.
TCSEC was used to EVALUATE, CLASSIFY & SELECT computer systems being considered for the processing, storage, and retrieval of sensitive or classified information
4 Divisions and Classes
-D - Minimal protection
-C - Discretionary protection
-B - Mandatory protection
-A - Verified protection
What is CPTED
(Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design)
multi-disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behavior through environmental design.
altering the physical design of the communities in which humans reside and congregate in order to deter criminal activity
-Strategies for the built environment
-- Natural surveillance
-- Natural access control
-- Natural territorial reinforcement
can be configured on LAN switches to prevent malicious or malformed DHCP traffic, or rogue DHCP servers. In addition, information on hosts which have successfully completed a DHCP transaction is accrued in a database of "bindings" which may then be used by other security or accounting features.
Max Tolerable Downtime (MTD)
Recovery Point Objective (RPO)
Recovery Time Objective (RTO)
Work Recovery Time (WRT)
In BCP / DRP, what are MTD, RPO, RTO, WRT
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)
is a process level improvement training and appraisal program.
required by many United States Department of Defense (DoD) and U.S. Government contracts, especially in software development
5 Maturity Levels of CMMI
(Capability Maturity Model Integration)
Where would SSL / TLS go on the OSI Model?
What is the NIST 800-145
What is the NIST SP Publication that defines "CLOUD COMPUTING"
Cloud Computing; SaaS; PaaS; IaaS; On-demand Self Service; Reserve Pooling; Rapid Elasticity; Measured Service; Software as a Service; Platform as a Service; Infrastructure as a Service
What is STRIDE
(Spoofing, Tampering, Repudiation, Information , Denial of Service, Elevation of privilege)
Threat categorization scheme developed by Microsoft with the acronym STRIDE
What is the difference between
DIFFERENTIAL VS INCREMENTAL BACKUPS
Differential Backups require 2 BACKUPS to restore -
1) Most Recent Full Backup
2) Most Recent DIFFERENTIAL Backup
Incremental Backups Require MORE backups to restore
1) Most Recent Full Backup
2) ALL INCREMENTAL BACKUPS since previous FULL BACKUP
What are the 5 Types of Disaster Recovery Tests?
1) READ-THROUGH TEST - simplest tests to conduct. but also one of the most critical. Distribute copies of disaster recovery plans to the members of the disaster recovery team for review.
2) WALK-THROUGH TEST /TABLE TOP EXERCISE - DR team gather in room & role-play disaster scenario. Moderator presents details to DR team. DR team refer to copies of DRP & discuss appropriate DR responses.
3) SIMULATION TEST - DRP team members presented scenario & asked to develop response. SOME RESPONSE MEASURES ARE TESTED. May involve interruption of noncritical business activities use of some operational personnel
4) PARALLEL TESTS - Involve relocating personnel to alternate recovery site & implementing site activation procedures. Perform their disaster recovery responsibilities as if an actual disaster occurred. MAIN FACILITY NOT INTERRUPTED
5) FULL-INTERRUPTION TEST -involve SHUTTING DOWN operations at primary site and SHIFTING operations to recovery site. Risky
Symmetric Block and Keysizes
Calculate number of symmetric keys required for "n" users
ex 10 users
10(10-1)/2 = 45
What is the Graham-Denning Security Model?
Security Model focused on secure creation and deletion of both subjects & objects. This model consists of 8 primary protection rules / actions
■■ Securely create an object.
■■ Securely create a subject.
■■ Securely delete an object.
■■ Securely delete a subject.
■■ Securely provide the read access right.
■■ Securely provide the grant access right.
■■ Securely provide the delete access right.
■■ Securely provide the transfer access right.
Specific abilities or permissions of a subject over a set of objects is defined in
an access matrix (aka access control matrix).
What is Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR)?
ASLR is a control that involves randomly arranging the positions of a process's address
space and other memory segments. It randomly arranges the positions of key data areas, usually including the base of the
executable and position of system libraries, memory heap, and memory stacks, in a process's address space. ASLR makes it
more difficult for an attacker to predict target addresses for specific memory attacks.
One-time pad cipher
Sometimes called the Vernam cipher.
- unbreakable if implemented correctly
- must be randomly generated
- must be physically protected against disclosure
- must be used only once
- key must be at least as long as the message to be encrypted
What are 5 Levels of Government Classification?
U.S. Can Stop Terrorism (Acronym)
TOP SECRET - highest level of classification. Disclosure will have drastic effects and cause GRAVE DAMAGE TO NATIONAL SECURITY
data compartmentalized on a NEED-TO-KNOW basis. (CLASSIFIED)
SECRET - data of a restricted nature. unauthorized disclosure have significant effects and cause CRITICAL DAMAGE TO NATIONAL SECURITY (CLASSIFIED)
CONFIDENTIAL - data of sensitive, proprietary, or highly valuable nature. Disclosure has noticeable effects & cause SERIOUS DAMAGE TO NATIONAL SECURITY. Used for all data between secret and sensitive (CLASSIFIED)
SENSITIVE BUT UNCLASSIFIED (SBU) - used for data for internal or office use only (FOUO). Protects information that may violate privacy rights of individuals. UNCLASSIFIED.
UNCLASSIFIED - data that is neither sensitive nor classified. Disclosure does not compromise confidentiality or cause damage. UNCLASSIFIED
Commercial / Private Sector Classifications
CONFIDENTIAL / PROPRIETARY - Highest level of classification. Extremely sensitive, internal use only. SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE IMPACT if disclosed. Sometimes proprietary data is considered specific form of confidential information. Disclosure of proprietary data can have drastic effects on competitiveedge of an organization.
( CONFIDENTIAL = COMPANY DATA)
PRIVATE - private or personal nature, intended for internal use only. SIGNIFICANT negative impact for company or individuals
(PRIVATE = INDIVIDUALS DATA )
SENSITIVE- Data that is more classified than public data. Negative impact for the company if data is disclosed.
PUBLIC - lowest level of classification. Used for data that does not fit in higher classifications. Disclosure does not have a serious negative impact on organization.
Intellectual Property Laws
Patent - grants ownership of an invention and provides enforcement for owner to exclude others from practicing the invention. After 20 years the idea is open source of application
Copyright protects the expression of ideas but not necessarily the idea itself ex. Poem, song @70 years after author dies
Trade Secret - something that is propriety to a company and important for its survival and profitability (Coke formula) DON'T REGISTER - no application
Trademarks - words, names, product shape, symbol, color or a combination used to identify products and distinguish them from competitor products (McDonald's M) @10 years
Wassenaar Arrangement (WA)
prevent buildup of military capabilities and threaten regional and international security and stability
integrity model, foundation of noninterference conceptual theories. Often when someone refers to a noninterference model, they are actually referring to this model.
based on automation theory and domainseparation.
subjects allowed only to perform predetermined actions against predetermined objects.
members of one subject domain cannot interfere with members of another subject domain. subjects unable to interfere with each other's activities.
integrity model. focuses on preventing interference in support of integrity.
formally based on state machine model and information flow model.
does not directly indicate specific mechanisms for protection of integrity.
based on the idea of defining a set of system states, initial states, & state transitions.
use of only predetermined secure states integrity is maintained and interference is prohibited.
example:to prevent a covert channel from being used to influence the outcome of a process or activity.
EU-US Privacy Shield
Replacment for the now defunct "Safe Harbor" framework.
The___________ framework, governed by the U.S. Department of Commerce and Federal Trade Commission, allows U.S. companies to certify compliance with EU data protection law
An Act also know as Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999.
Prohibits financial institutions from sharing customer information with 3rd parties.
Fourth Amendment - US Constitution
Constitutional Amendment that employees may use against a company if the employee feels the companies monitoring of the employees work computer violates the employee's Reasonable Expectation of Privacy (REP)
...right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated,...
"mod" in math is the remainder in an integer division problem.
What is 16 mod 3?
What is M of N control?
M of N Control requires that a minimum number of agents (M) out of the total number of agents (N) work together to perform high-security tasks.
Symmetric Block Cipher Mode Electronic Code Book (ECB) Mode
What is TEMPEST
____________ is a standard for the study and control of electronic signals produced by various types of electronic hardware, such as computers, televisions, phones, and so on. Its primary goal is to prevent EMI and RFI radiation ( Van Eck Radiation) from leaving a strictly defined area to eliminate the possibility of external radiation monitoring, eavesdropping, and signal sniffing (called Van Eck phreaking).
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