Houghton Mifflin Science Grade 5 Chapter 1

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Terms in this set (...)

cell
basic unit that makes up living things
nucleus
the cell part that contains DNA and directs cell activities
organelle
a structure that performs a specific functions in the cell
diffusion
movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentrations
osmosis
takes place across the membrane and lets water pass, but keeps out many things dissolved in water. It is a special form of diffusion that works to keep water in the cell.
organ
a group of related tissues that perform a specific function
organ system
a group of related organs that work together to accomplish a task
tissue
a group of similar specialized cells that work together
cytoplasm
a thick liquid located between the nucleus and the cell membrane
cell membrane
a thin covering that is around all kinds of cells. It lets food, water and gases in and lets wastes out.
cell wall
a hard outer layer that is around the cell membrane in plants
ribosomes
found all around the cell. The do not have membranes. They make proteins
lysosomes
small, ball shaped organelles that help the cell break down nutrients and old cell parts. They are found in animal cells, but usually not in plant cells.
vacuoles
small bags that have a membrane around them. They are filled with liquid. They store water, food and waste. Animal cells may have a lot, plants may have only one.
golgi apparatus
takes in proteins. It gets proteins ready to be outside the cell. This organelle may have many membranes.
chloroplasts
are found only in plants and some protists. they have colors that absorb sunlight. The use energy from the sun to make food.
mitochondria
large peanut-shaped organelles that are the "power plants" of the cell. They break down sugars and let off carbon dioxide, water, and a lot of energy. They are found in both plant and animal cells. A cell that needs a lot of energy will have a lot of them.
endoplasmic reticulum
has many membranes and tubes that move things They turn their way through the cell and have tunnels through which things can pass. They can be rough or smooth. The rough ones are dotted with ribosomes, but the smooth ones are not.
cellular respiration
the process by which cells break down glucose in plants and animals
glucose
is sugar. It comes from plants and is in animals that eat plants.
active transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
passive transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy

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