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45 terms

Chapter 9 Hum D

STUDY
PLAY
alienation
Withdrawal or separation of people or their affections from an object or position of former attachment.
anorexia nervosa
An emotional disorder in which the person loses the ability to regulate eating behavior; the person is obsessed with a fear of being overweight and avoids food or becomes nauseated after eating.
binge drinking
Quickly consuming five or more drinks in a row.
bulimia
A habitual disturbance in eating behavior, mostly affecting young women of normal weight, which is characterized by frequent episodes of grossly excessive food intake followed by self-induced vomiting to prevent weight gain.
clique
A small friendship group of 5 to 10 people.
common bond
Interpersonal ties that provide feelings of acceptance and emotional support.
common identity
Shared roles involving pressure to comply with group expectations.
crowd
A large group that is usually recognized by a few predominant characteristics, such as the 'preppies,' the 'jocks,' or the 'druggies.'
decentering
Gaining some objectivity over one's own point of view; reducing the dominance of one's subjective perspective in the interpretation of events.
dependent variable
A factor that is defined by a participant's responses or reactions and that may or may not be affected by the experimenter's manipulation of the independent variable.
depressed mood
Refers to feelings of sadness, a loss of hope, a sense of being overwhelmed by the demands of the world, and general unhappiness.
depression
A state of feeling sad, often accompanied by feelings of low personal worth and withdrawal from relations with others.
depressive syndrome
This term refers to a constellation of behaviors and emotions that occur together. The syndrome usually includes complaints about feeling depressed, anxious, fearful, worried, guilty, and worthless.
disclosure
Sharing information with others about whether one is gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
dissociation
A sense of separateness or withdrawal from others; an inability to experience the bond of mutual commitment.
ethnic-group identity
Knowing that one is a member of a certain ethnic group; recognizing that aspects of one's thoughts, feelings, and actions are influenced by one's ethnic membership; and taking the ethnic group's values, outlook, and goals into account when making life choices.
executive functioning
Includes several cognitive capacities, including the ability to reject irrelevant information, formulate complex hypothetical arguments, organize an approach to a complex task, and follow a sequence of steps to task completion. Often associated with advances in the development of the prefrontal cortex.
formal operations
Complex cognitive capacities, such as reasoning, hypothesis generation, and hypothesis testing.
group identity
The positive pole of the psychosocial crisis of early adolescence, in which the person finds membership in and value convergence with a peer group.
hypothesis
A tentative proposition that can provide a basis for further inquiry.
identity confusion
The negative pole of the psychosocial crisis of later adolescence, in which a person is unable to integrate various roles or make commitments.
imaginary audience
The preoccupation with what you believe other people are thinking about you.
individual identity
The commitment to a personal integration of values, goals, and abilities that occurs as personal choices are made in response to anticipated or actual environmental demands at the end of adolescence.
major depressive disorder
A disorder in which a person will have experienced five or more of the following symptoms for at least 2 weeks: depressed mood or irritable mood most of the day; decreased interest in pleasurable activities; changes in weight, or perhaps failure to make necessary weight gains in adolescence; sleep problems; psychomotor agitation or retardation; fatigue or loss of energy; feelings of worthlessness or abnormal amounts of guilt; reduced concentration and decision-making ability; and repeated suicidal ideation, attempts, or plans of suicide.
menarche
The beginning of regular menstrual periods.
peer pressure
Expectations to conform and commit to the norms of one's peer group.
personal fable
An intense investment in one's own thoughts and feelings and a belief that these thoughts are unique.
puberty
The period of physical development at the onset of adolescence when the reproductive system matures.
reference group
A group with which an individual identifies and whose values the individual accepts as guiding principles.
reputational identity
Identity characteristics assigned to someone by those in their environment (such as a school) that is derived from their being associated with a crowd in the setting.
secondary sex characteristics
The physical characteristics other than genitals that indicate sexual maturity, such as body hair, breasts, and deepened voice.
secular growth trend
A tendency, observed since approximately 1900, for more rapid physical maturation from one generation to the next, probably as a result of favorable nutrition, increased mobility, and greater protection from childhood diseases.
selection forces
Adolescents seek out friends who will support their involvement with drugs as part of a more general pattern of deviance or thrill seeking
self labeling
Refers to applying a label such as gay, lesbian, or bisexual to oneself. Compare disclosure.
status offense
Behavior that is criminalized for minors, such as running away or truancy, which would not be against the law for adults.
Which of the following occurs during puberty?
c. maturation of the reproductive system
During early adolescence, there is ________ in the rate and sequence of development.
c. variability
Cross-national research demonstrates a strong association between body dissatisfaction and:
a. depression.
What is a common consequence of early maturation for girls?
b. higher levels of conflict with parents
According to the text, egocentrism may best be described as:
a. a limited perspective a child displays at the beginning of each new phase of cognitive development.
The kind of reasoning associated with diplomacy, psychotherapy, and spiritual leadership is called:
c. postformal reasoning.
Which of the following is an eating disorder that is characterized by fear of gaining weight and refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight?
c. anorexia
Which of the following is a precipitating event that might lead to adolescent suicide?
a. rejection by a romantic partner
b. a humiliating experience
c. all of these
d. a notable failure
Populars, gangs, skateboarders, and jocks are examples of:
b. peer crowds.
In what way might experiences of alienation be important for the formation of group and individual identity?
a. All of these.
b. They help the young person see the self against the backdrop of the group.
c. They help teens appreciate how good social acceptance feels.
d. The discomfort of not fitting in helps the young person recognize the distinctiveness of his or her point of view.