General term for male sex hormones, the most prevalent of which is testosterone.
The capacity to express both masculine and feminine characteristics as the situation demands.
The stage at which a person has developed decision making strategies and the self-insight that permit a realistic career choice.
In Tiedeman's career decision model, the phase when the person decides which action alternative to follow. The decision is solidified in the person's mind as he or she elaborates the reasons why the decision is beneficial. There is a sense of relief and optimism as the person develops a commitment to executing the decision.
In Tiedeman's career decision model, the phase when the person more fully understands the consequences of his or her commitment to the decision that has been made. He or she plans definite steps to take and may actually take them or may delay them until a more appropriate time. The self-image is prepared to be modified by the decision.
Consists of a demonstration of personal involvement in the areas of occupational choice, religion, and political ideology.
A dramatic emotional or circumstantial upheaval in a person's life. In psychosocial theory, this often refers to a normal set of stresses and strains rather than to an extraordinary set of events, and it consists of a period of role experimentation and active decision making among alternative choices.
In Tiedeman's career decision model, the phase when the person becomes more aware of the alternatives for action and their consequences. Conflicts among alternatives are recognized, and some alternatives are discarded. The person develops a strategy for making the decision, in part by weighing the costs and benefits.
Morality is viewed as a system of rules that are agreed upon in order to preserve human rights and social order. These rules are understood as having been created in cultural and historical contexts, and can be altered as the norms of the community change.
The extent to which a social system encourages intimacy while supporting the expression of differences.
The major female sex hormone.
Principles of conduct founded on a society's moral code.
In Tiedeman's career decision model, the phase when a person realizes that a career decision must be made and therefore begins to learn more about those aspects of the self and the occupational world that are relevant to the impending decision. The person begins to generate alternatives for action. Uncertainty about the future and the many alternatives is accompanied by feelings of anxiety.
family of origin
The family into which one is born.
Gender traits associated with being expressive and communal (e.g., valuing interpersonal and spiritual development, being tender, sympathetic, and concerned about the well-being of others).
The ability to freely pledge and sustain loyalties to others; the ability to freely pledge and sustain loyalties to values and ideologies.
When children learn the biological basis of gender and that one's gender does not change.
A set of beliefs, attitudes, and values about oneself as a man or woman in many areas of social life, including intimate relations, family, work, community, and religion.
Individual identity status in which, after a crisis, a sense of commitment to family, work, political, and religious values is established.
Individual identity status in which a commitment to family, work, politics, and religious values is established prematurely, without crisis.
In Tiedeman's career decision model, the phase when a person encounters the new work environment for the first time. He or she wants to be accepted and looks to others for cues about how to behave. The person identifies with the new group and seeks recognition for his or her unique characteristics. Gradually, the self-image is modified as the person begins to believe in the values and goals of the work group.
In Tiedeman's career decision model, the phase when the person is very much involved with the new group. He or she becomes more assertive in asking that the group perform better. The person also tries to influence the group to accommodate some of his or her values. The self is strongly committed to group goals. During this phase, the group's values and goals may be modified to include the orientation of the new member.
In Tiedeman's career decision model, the phase when group members react against the new member's attempts to influence them. The new member then compromises. In the process, he or she attains a more objective understanding of the self and the group. A true collaboration between the new member and the group is achieved. The new member feels satisfied and is evaluated as successful by the self and others.
Deliberate self evaluation and examination of private thoughts and feelings.
Moral decision making based on human rights, respect for others, and fairness.
Gender traits associated with being instrumental and agentic (e.g., having leadership abilities, being assertive, taking control).
The sense in which a person defines himself or herself in moral terms and evaluates his or her behavior against moral standards that represent an integration of parental socialization about caring for others, an appreciation for the cultural and social contexts of moral actions, and experiences that have required moral action.
A clearly defined self-image that is completely contrary to the cultural values of the community.
Refers to a person's inner uniqueness and unity and the subjective experience of being the originator of one's thoughts and actions and of being self-reflective.
prohibitive moral judgment
A judgment involving a conflict between violating a law and breaking a promise in order to achieve some other goal.
prosocial moral judgment
A judgment involving a conflict between doing something helpful for someone else and meeting one's own needs.
A period of free experimentation before a final identity is achieved.
The many roles that one plays and the expectations that social reference groups, including family members, neighbors, teachers, friends, religious groups, ethnic groups, and even national leaders, have for one's behavior.
Rejection of roles and values that are viewed as alien to oneself.
The central process for the resolution of the psychosocial crisis of later adolescence, which involves participation in a variety of roles before any final commitments are made.
A hormone that fosters the development of male sex characteristics and growth.
Refers to people who do not identify with or present themselves as reflecting the sex they were born with and who move across or combine gender boundaries.
Which of the following involves the ability to select and guide one's decisions and actions, without undue control from or dependence on parents?
How is college choice related to attitudes about wanting to be independent from parents?
a. College freshmen appear to differ in how much they want autonomy from parents as they begin college.
Gender role preference is based on two main factors: 1) how well one can meet the cultural and social expectations associated with one's gender; and 2):
a. how positively one views the social status associated with one's gender.
During later adolescence, the loosening of ties to one's family and participation in an expanding set of social roles leads to which of the following?
d. re-examination of one's moral code
Of the following four groups, which has the highest median income?
a. Men who have graduated from high school.
A person who develops complex decision-making strategies, gains access to career-related information, and archives self-insight about career-related goals is said to have achieved:
c. career maturity.
In Tiedeman's crystallization phase, the person:
c. becomes more aware of alternatives and consequences.
Which of the following identity statuses is characterized by a period of questioning and crisis followed by the formation of occupational and ideological commitments?
a. identity achievement
Paul has changed his major twice. He has had several summer jobs and is considering another type of internship next year. With respect to his occupational identity, we would say he is engaging in:
d. role experimentation.
The ability to sustain loyalties freely pledged in spite of the inevitable contradictions and confusions of value systems is referred to as: