24 terms

APHG-U1.1-2

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Def: area
Sig: space, or spatial analysis, is the heart of geography(like time is to historians)
Space
Def: the system used to transfer locations from earth's surface to a flat map
Sig: it will always cause distortion (direction, area, distance, shape, and/or proximity)
Projection
Def: problems created when "flattening" the earth (distance, direction, area, shape & proximity)
Ex: the mercator projection heavily distorts area at the higher latitudes
Distortion
Def: the size of something
- in cartography it's the ratio of the size of the map to what it represents
- The scale of inquiry refers to the extent of an area being analyzed or discussed (local, global, etc.)
Sig: scales are often interrelated (local affects global and vise versa) and vary (the US is wealthy but regions within the US are not)
Scale
Def: a computer system which could collect, store, retrieve and depict spatial date from the real world.
Ex: Google maps use various data to help us locate, navigate and determine commute time to various locations.
GIS
- Def: GPS is an example of a "satellite navigation system" which helps us determine absolute location of something.
• Ex: GPS can help us locate or track tagged animals or packages.
Global Positioning System
Def: the scanning of the earth's surface by satellite or a high flying airplane to obtain information about it.
Ex: it's used to see urban sprawl, shrinking ice caps and deforestation
Remote Sensing
Def: facts or information used usually to calculate, analyze, or plan something
Ex: -Geospatial(geographic or spatial info)
-Qualitative(non-measurable info)
-Quantitative(measurable/numbered info)
Data
Def: an exact position of an object or place in relation to a conventional grid system
Ex: GPS, addresses, township & range
Absolute Location
Def: the physical character of a place
Sig: a place's natural harbor or fertile lands could spur settlement and economic development
Site
The advantages and disadvantages of a place due to its position in relation to that of other places (the successful cheetos store is located next to hami)
Sig: it helps us understand interconnectivity of places
Situation (Relative Location)
Def: the name of a place
Sig: it can tell us about the original settlers or the development at the time of the naming
Toponym
Def: the fashioning of natural landscape by a cultural group
Sig: the cultural landscape can tell us about a society's culture, economic development, etc.
Cultural Landscape
Def: latitudes circle the map east-west (e.g. equator). Longitudes stretch from pole to (prime meridian)
Ex: latitude affects climates while longitude affects time zone. Both help navigate
Latitude & Longitude
Def: the uniqueness of a location.
Sig: Use physical & cultural characteristics to describe place.
Place
Def: Using techniques like field observations & photographic interpretations to help understand people, places and regions; helps see interconnections between and among places and regions (and humans and environment)
Sig: precipitation maps help predict future famine
Landscape Analysis
Def: the idea that the physical environment is the principle cause of human activity
Sig: many argue it doesn't factor in how culture promotes or prohibits human activity too.
Environmental Determinism
Def: the idea that physical environment sets limits but people have the ability to adjust the environment and make choices
Sig: it argues that culture plays a major roll in human activity
Possibilism
Def: US geographer who promoted the importance of culture and the cultural landscape
Sig: He focused attention away from the physical environment
Carl Sauer
Def: German geographer associated with environmental determinism
Sig: argued that culture was a product of environment
Carl Ritter
Def: The process where locations become similar or connected in some way (and different from other regions)
Sig: This may lead to an improved economy through specialization and connectivity(e.g. steel belt) or the breakup of a country (the confederacy)
Regionalization
Def: A region where everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
Ex: The wheat belt or California
Formal Region
Def: An area organized around a node or focal point
Ex: newspaper delivery area or a grocery store customer zone
Functional Region
Def: An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Ex: the south or the hood
Perceptual Region
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