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Vygotsky's approach to learning is an example of what type of constructivism?
Both externally and internally directed
Vygotsky's notion that learning is inherently social and embedded in a particular cultural setting is
Which one of the following ways of learning an applied skill is most consistent with a constructivist
Use realistic materials and a group format to provide support for individuals
The principal characteristics of constructivist teaching are complex, real-life learning environments
social negotiation and shared responsibility
A structure for teaching, developed by Jerome Bruner, that introduces the fundamental structure of al l
subjects during the early school years and then revisits the subjects in increasingly more complex forms
over time, is called what type of curriculum?
Ms. French would like to have her students, while experimenting with their own structured
materials, discover some key principles of gravity. Which one of the following teaching methods
should be most appropriate for this purpose?
The guided inquiry morel developed by Magnusson, Palincsar, and their colleagues involves both firsthand investigations and
Using instructional conversations as a teaching tool is designed to provide a means for
grappling with problems in students' zones of proximal development and providing scaffolding.
Which one of the following factors is an element of the instructional aspect of instructional
Promotion of complex language and expressions
Which one of the following behaviors is one of the teacher's roles in problem-based learning?
Help students to reflect on their investigations
Which one of the following elements does NOT define a true cooperative learning group?
In organizing cooperative learning groups, Woolfolk suggests that it is best to
balance the number of boys and girls in each group.
Research findings suggest that students who tend to benefit most from cooperative learning
experiences are those who
are active in explaining things to others.
In cooperative learning groups, the role of the student who makes certain no one dominates the group
is called the
Marible was assigned the role of making sure her group understands the learning task. Her role is
referred to as the
The five elements of cooperative learning listed by David and Roger Johnson (1994) include positive
interdependence, individual accountability, group processing, collaborative skills and
Which one of the following students is playing the role of reflector in a cooperative learning group?
Gary makes sure that the group is aware of its progress or lack of progress toward the group goal.
In a cooperative learning situation, the role of the encourager is to
encourage all students to participate.
In their writing group, Aron has become the expert on how to write an introductory sentence. When
students teach other students about the part in which they have expertise, they are engaged in what
type of cooperative learning structure?
In using cooperative learning, it is recommended that teachers
use the assignment of roles as a way to encourage participation.
Jigsaw, an early format for cooperative learning, emphasizes what relationship among group
Bandura suggested that the main limitation of traditional views of learning is that these views are
Bandura challenged and expanded his early work on behavioral conceptions of learning by focusing
social learning theory
According to Bandura's theory of self-efficacy, the most important and influential source of self efficacy information comes from
Ms. Jackson's perception of her capabilities to effectively deal with a particular task is her sense of
The following statement is true about the relation between self-efficacy and self-esteem
There is no relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem for academic tasks.
In Bandura's social cognitive learning theory, the interaction among personal factors, environmental
events, and behaviors is called
According to Bandura, expectations are part of which one of the elements that comprise reciprocal
Mr. Snow, the math teacher, asks parents to facilitate their child's self-regulation by
modeling how to set specific goals.
Which one of the following teaching approaches does Lynn Fuch (2003) recommend for incorporating self-regulated learning strategies into math-problem solving?
At the beginning of each session, students should set new goals based on their previous math
Woolfolk suggests the following strategy for teachers in an effort to involve parents in supporting
self-regulation within their child:
Ask families to keep records in support of the students' self-evaluation of progress
What are the steps involved in self-regulated learning?
Analyzing the task, setting goals, devising plans, enacting strategies
Mr. Jacoby is very effective at encouraging his students to become self-regulated learners because he includes the following in his teaching:
Direct instruction on the aspects of self-regulated learning
Which one of the following quotes is an example of high self-efficacy?
"I am usually good at math, so I will do well in this class."
Erin is a fifth-grade teacher who has a high degree of efficacy in teaching. Consequently, Erin will
have a high sense of "withitness."
Research on self-efficacy and achievement suggests that school achievement is improved and self-efficacy is increased when students
receive rewards or other reinforcements based on the quality of their performances.
Which one of the following theories places the greatest emphasis on presenting models so that
students can learn from observing others complete a task?
Social cognitive theory
According to Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory, peers
can serve as important models and facilitiate student learning.
Zimmerman's model of self-regulated learning ends the cycle with
the individual reflecting upon what has been learned and thinking about his or her performance.
In Roger Azevedo's research a self-regulation "coach" is
someone who helps students plan their learning and monitor their understanding.
Which one of the following is NOT an essential component of emotional self-regulation?
Solving problems independently rather than asking for help when needed.
The behavior of which one of the following students best describes the fifth motivation question,
which pertains to what the individual is thinking and feeling during an activity?
Anxious Amee, whose worry and anxiety may lead her to make poor choices and procrastinate
On Sunday afternoon, Rick spent a couple of hours picking up discarded bottles and cans from a
picturesque section of the wildlife refuge, even though he knew he would not get paid anything for his
efforts. Rick's motivation is best described as being
Ms. Riley tells the class, "If we have a good lesson on fractions, I will credit each of you with a bonus
point." She is trying to stimulate what type of motivation?
Externally imposed reward systems seem particularly appropriate for students who are
not interested in the subject.
According to behavioral theory of motivation, students are motivated primarily by a(n)
desire to gain reinforcers for their behavior.
The cognitive approach to motivation is illustrated best by people who respond to
their perceptions of events, not the events themselves.
Maria spent many hours trying to complete her geometry proofs. A cognitive interpretation of
Maria's motivation is that Maria
is attempting to acquire understanding of how the different theorems work.
An "expectancy x value" theory would predict that motivation will necessarily be
zero if either expectation to succeed or the perceived value of a goal is zero
In expectancy x value theory, the two sources of motivation are
projected future outcomes and the value of goals.
Fred has wanted to be a chef since he was a little kid, and he used to bake cookies with his mother.
The behavioral view expert would say that Fred is motivated to be a chef because
of his early childhood reinforcement history
Which one of the following statements is the most accurate definition of motivation?
An inner state that arouses, directs, and maintains a person's behavior
Doug's family is very poor, so he often goes to school with no breakfast and a very small lunch packet. According to Maslow, Doug is failing his classes because what type of needs are not being met?
Jeremy's interest in history has been decreasing lately. According to Maslow's theory, what should
the teacher do?
Determine whether his deficiency needs are met.
Which one of the following situations is a valid implication of Maslow's hierarchy for education?
Jennifer, who is feeling ill this week, may show little interest in academic performance
Each situation below represents a need in Maslow's hierarchy. Which of the following students
demonstrates the most basic need that must be satisfied before any other?
Chuck has been threatened by a neighborhood gang
Maslow's hierarchy of needs has been criticized because
people frequently attend to needs in different orders than the hierarchy predicts.
According to attribution theory, students who see the causes of their failures as internal and
controllable will react to those failures by
finding strategies to succeed the next time.
Pride or shame for one's own actions is likely to be felt most strongly by those who attribute their
Pat believes that the reason for her success in reading is the effort she puts into it. Pat is reflecting
what type of locus of control?
As Jim looks at his report card, he remarks to Judy, "I got that B because I really didn't work hard in
Mr. Wedel l's calculus class." According to Weiner, Jim is attributing the cause of his grade to causes
internal, stable, controllable.
Sara attributes failures to internal causes. Consequently, she is likely to blame her poor mark in
science on her
lack of effort.
Harry is apathetic and certain that he is not able to do the work. He makes poor marks in school
and is not inclined to seek help. According to attribution theory, Harry is typical of students who
attribute their failures to causes that are
internal, stable, and uncontrollable.
Anthony said, "I did well because I was lucky." The type of attribution being demonstrated is
The type of learning goal that a person will be most motivated to reach is one that is
specific and moderately difficult.
Dennis often cons his best friends into letting him use one of their papers from last semester for his
assignment in psychology this semester. In terms of goals, what type of learner does Dennis appear to
Students with performance goals as opposed to learning goals are concerned primarily with
looking good in front of others.
Which one of the following quotes exemplifies a learning or mastery goal?
"Accomplishing this should make me better prepared for Biology 101."
Whenever Matt appears to be having difficulty in completing his science laboratory work, Ms.
Butterfield quickly offers to help him and encourages him to continue working. According to Graham
(1991), Ms. Butterfield's behavior is likely to result in Matt developing
doubts about his ability.
Which one of the following notions is consistent with the idea that "practice makes perfect"?
Incremental view of ability
Cognitive evaluation theory explains how praise, criticism, grade assignments, and other events
can influence students' intrinsic motivation by affecting their sense of competence and
Students who demonstrate "learned helplessness" are likely to
focus on their failures and not seek assistance.
As need for achievement increases in spite of fear of failure, what type of student will be motivated
According to Covington and others, which one of the following would be the strongest indicator of
whether an individual will be motivated to accept new challenges and risks?
Drive for achievement and an incremental view of ability
Sally sets unrealistically high goals for herself but is unsure about her abilities. Woolfolk would be
likely to label Sally as
Ms. Kirkendal l wants to help students develop more positive self-perceptions. What approach is
recommended for her to use?
Raising grades based on individual efforts to improve the work assigned
Learning and information processing are influenced by reasoning and problem solving as well as by
As reported by Woolfolk, the debilitating effects of anxiety are viewed to be due to
attention being diverted from the learning task to a preoccupation with one's feelings.
From the pioneering work of Yerkes and Dodson (1905) to present-day research results, what is the
correlation between virtually every aspect of achievement and a wide variety of anxiety measures?
Cindy faces every classroom situation in exactly the same way: she develops sweaty palms and a
rapid heart beat. Cindy is likely to be helped most by
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