Driver's Ed Chapter 4
Terms in this set (70)
What Devices Help Make Driving Comfortable?
-Driver's seat should be comfortable and provide you with good visibility and access to the vehicle's controls.
-Adjustments are best made before driving.
-In a vehicle with a steering-wheel air bag, adjust the seat so you are at least 10-12 inches from the steering wheel.
-Seat adjustment lever located on the lower left side or lower front of driver' seat or if mechanically powered--in the driver's and passenger door-trim panels or on the side of the driver's seat.
-Never adjust the seat while the vehicle is moving.
-Align the steering wheel with your body.
-The top of the steering wheel should be no higher than the top of your shoulders.
-If you are a shorter driver, you may need to use a wedge-shaped seat cushion to bring yourself up to proper height in vehicles without an adjustable steering wheel.
-Manh newer vehicles have an adjustable steering wheel, which tilts up or down.
-The lever to tilt steering wheel is located on the steering column.
-Never adjust the steering wheel while driving.
Air Conditioner and Heater
AC: cool the vehicle and lower the humidity
Heater: warms the vehicle interior and clears fogged windows
-Found below/above radio, on dashboard between passenger and driver
Help cool interior of car
Adjustable air vents allow outside air to flow into the vehicle
Located on the dashboard or on the lower left and tight sides of the vehicle in the front of the doors
Allow the air from the AC and heater to enter the car
Vehicle's Control System
-The Ignition Switch
-The Transmission and Clutch
-The Steering Wheel
-The Accelerator and the Brakes
*Start car's vehicle by inserting followed by turning key in your vehicle's ignition switch.
*Found on steering column and sometimes on the dashboard on the right of steering wheel
*Five positions: Accessory, Lock, Off, On, and Start
*When you are finished driving, turn the ignition switch to Lock and remove the key.
Turn on electrical equipment (e.g. car's radio) without running the engine
Locks the ignition switch, steering wheel, and automatic transmission; lets you remove the key
Turns off engine but doesn't remove the key
Turns on the car's ignition and electrical systems
Draws power from the car's battery to start engine
Accelerator (Gas Pedal)
To move the vehicle and control its speed, press on the accelerator pedal.
-Use right foot.
-Harder you press, faster you go.
-Taking your foot off accelerator pedal helps to reduce driving speed
Enables you to stop or slow vehicle
Use right foot
Located to the left of accelerator pedal
Keep your foot on this pedal before changing gears.
Requires less foot pressure to operate than non-power brakes
Does not shorten distance needed to stop vehicle
-Control direction of car by turning steering wheel
-Car goes in the direction of the front wheels
-In cars equipped with power steering, it is very easy to turn the steering wheel.
-Drive at 10 and 2 or 9 and 3 o'clock.
Selector Lever of Automatic Transmission (Gear Selector Lever)
-Helps a vehicle move forward efficiently; either manual or automatic
-Choose the gear you want by moving the gear selector lever in vehicles with automatic transmission.
-Located on the steering column or on the floor to the right of the driver's seat
-Allows your car to stay parked and move forward and backward, connected to vehicle's transmission
-The five standard gar selections: Park, Reverse, Neutral, Drive, Low
-Locks the transmission
-Your car should be in Park when you start the engine
Used for backing the car
Left hand 12 o'clock, right hand on passenger seat and look over shoulder
Can be used when the car is idling, wheels free to move
Can start the engine here as well
Forward gear used normally to drive
Allows the engine to deliver more power to the wheels at slower speed. Use low gears to drive up and down hills.
Gear Shift for Manual Transmission (Clutch Pedal)
To start and move a vehicle with a manual transmission (or stick shift), you will need to use the clutch. Car with a manual transmission has a third foot petal to the left of the brake pedal. To start this vehicle, step down on the clutch pedal and move the gearshift to the gear you need (usually First or Reverse). Gearshift is located on the floor to the right of the driver's sear or on the right side of the steering column. Always press the clutch pedal when starting the vehicle or changing gears. The gear shift may have three, four, five, or even six forward speed positions. The fifth or sixth gear serves as an overdrive gear, which allows the engine to run more slowly and fuel efficiently at high speeds.
When your drive is over, you need to set the parking brake. Frequently called the emergency or hand brake, the parking brake keeps a vehicle from rolling away after it is parked. The parking-brake control can be a small pedal located to the left side of the floor panel, a hand lever located under the left side of the dashboard, or a floor-mounted hand lever located to the right of the driver"s seat. To set your parking brake, pull the lever up as fas it will go (or press down on the pedal). Use it if parking uphill or downhill.
Cruise Control (Speed Control)
Feature that lets you maintain a constant speed without keeping your foot on the accelerator. Located on the turn-indicator arm or on the steering heel. You can rest your right foot while maintaining a constant speed, which is also more fuel efficient.
To set cruise control: First accelerate to speed you want, decelerate slightly, then switch on cruise control
-Intended to be used on flat highways where you can maintain a particular rate of speed for a fairly long period of time
-Any time you touch the brake pedal, cruise control will go off.
What Devices Aid Visibility?
-Most of the time you drive, you will use the low beams.
-Helps other roadway users see you both at night and during the day.
-Help you see better at night, in dim light, and in bad weather
-Switch located on the dashboard or left side of steering column
Taillights, side marker lights, and dashboard lights
-Help other drivers see your vehicle
-When you turn on your headlights, your taillights, side marker lights, and dashboard light simultaneously come on
Daytime running lights
-Automatically come on and stay on while engine is running
-Help other drivers see you
-Do not turn on taillights, side marker lights, and dashboard lights
-Project light low tot the ground
-Best used in fog or when it is snowing
Rear-view and Side-view Mirrors
-Help driver see behind car and to the side
-Particularly useful when starting out or changing lanes
-Rear-view mirror should be easy to see without moving your head.
-Cannot eliminate all blind spots
-Adjust mirrors so you can see as much as possible (past each side of the car for side-view) before driving
-When planning to change lanes, check your blind spots using the mirrors and checking over your shoulder (quick glance) and make certain they are clear.
Areas of the road that you cannot see while driving the vehicle
Check blind spots by looking over shoulder (quick glances- 2 sec)
Behind left and behind right
Windshield Wipers and Washer
-Helps you to see through the front windshield in the rain and allow you to clean a dirty windshield
-Operate at various speeds
-When you just need to clean the windshield, the windshield washer squirts ware or a cleaning solution stored in a contained under the hood onto the windshield. After you squirt the windshield, the windshield wipers will clean it off.
-Moved up/down/to the side to prevent the sun from shining in your eyes
-May be used in the early morning or right before sunset
-Be careful not to let the visors interfere with your view of the roadway or traffic to the side
-In cold or rainy weather, use the defroster to help you see.
-Clears moisture or frost from the front, rear, and side windows
What Features Protect You From Injury?
Active Safety Devices
Require drivers and passengers to take action to protect themselves
Ex) Manual Safety Belts
Passive Safety Devies
Operate without the user having to do anything
Ex) Air bags
-Save lives and prevent injuries
-Lessen the chance that you or your passengers will be thrown against the dashboard, through the windshield, or through the door that has sprung open during the crash
-Help keep you behind the wheel and in control of the vehicle
-Always wear seat belts when the vehicle is moving
-Shoulder-lap safety belts are the safest and reduce risk of being killed by 45% and risk of moderate to critical injury by 50%
-49 states require driver and front seat passenger to wear seat belt
-Padded to protect the driver and passengers against a neck injury called whiplash, which can occur when the vehicle is hit from behind
-Should be close to the back of the head and at least as high as the head's center of gravity, or about 3.5 inches below the top of the head.
Air Bag Supplemental Restraint System
-Balloon-like devices that inflate automatically in a frontal crash, and then deflate again in a fraction of a second
-Reduce the chance of serious chest and facial injuries during head-on collisions by providing a cushion that reduces the force of impact
-The warning label under the sun visor explains proper seating position, the placement of infant seats, and risk of placing or mounting objects near the air-bag cover.
-Comes out at 160mph
-When you are in the car, keep the vehicle doors locked.
-Locked doors are unlikely to open in a crash, prevent uninvited people from opening your car door, and they keep young children from accidentally opening the car door
Other Safety Features
*Tempered safety-glass windows
*Energy-absorbing steering columns
*Protective Padding on the dashboard and interior roof
*Childproof door locks that are controlled by driver
What Devices Guard Against Vehicle Theft?
Buzz that reminds you to take key when leaving vehicle
-Locks on the trunk, hood, and gas tank
Alarms and Other Antitheft Devices
Help discourage and ward off car, truck, and motorcycle theives
*Disabling devices that keep the vehicle from starting or prevent the steering wheel from turning for unauthorized drivers
1: in front
located on the left side of steering wheel
Up: right turn
Down: left turn
What Devices Provide Information About Your Vehicle?
Speedometer and Odometer
Speedometer: Device in front of the steering wheel that shows how fast your vehicle is moving. Shown in mph and km/hr
Odometer: Small mileage counter of numbers at the bottom of the speedometer. Keeps track of the total number of miles a vehicle has been driven (Cannot reset unless you replace engine or flip the odometer)
Determine how close to full or empty your fuel tank is by checking your fuel gauge E= Empty, F= Full
Alternator Gauge or Warning Light
Alternator: Provides electricity to keep the engine running, recharge the battery, and operate the lights and radio. If there is a problem with the alternator, a red warning light will come on or the alternator gauge will indicate "discharge." If the alternator is not working properly, it does not produce enough power and will drain away the vital electricity stored in the battery, which is necessary to start the car. When the alternator is not working properly, turn off unnecessary devices such as the radio and check with a mechanic ASAP.
Temperature Gauge or Warning Light
Lets you know if your engine temperature is too high. Overheating can damage your engine. Get off the road, turn off your car, and let the engine cool down. You can put on heater and let the windows down. Have the problem checked ASAP.
Oil-Pressure Gauge or Warning Light
Alerts you when the pressure at which oil is being pumped to the engine is low. Low oil pressure means that the engine is not being lubricated properly. To avoid serious engine damage, stop driving immediately and consult a mechanic.
Brake Warning Light
Goes on when there is a problem with the brakes
Examples: Low on brake fluid, leaking fluid, brakes not working properly
***Check with a mechanic immediately!
Other Dashboard Lights
Parking-Brake Light: Reminds you to release the parking brake before moving the vehicle
Safety-Belt Warning: Reminds you to fasten your seat belt
Door Ajar Warning: One of the car's doors is not closed securely
High-beam Indicator: Shows when the headlights are on high beams,
Daytime Running Light Indicator: Shows when the daytime running lights are on
-Antilock Brake System (ABS)
How Do You Communicate with Other Roadway Users?
-Directional (turn) Signals
-Emergency Flashers (Hazard Lights)
-Come on with headlights
-Red Brake Lights on back of your car show the driver behind you that you're applying the brakes
-White Backup Lights indicate tour car has been shifted into reverse and will back up, also help you see behind you when backing up
-License Plate Light: Comes on with headlights and parking lights, required by law and helps the police and other drivers identify particular vehicles
Directional (Turn) Signals AKA Blinkers
-Located in the front and back of vehicle
-Show the other drivers that you plan to turn or change lanes
-To operate the signal, move the turn-indicator arm on the left side of the steering column up for right and down for left
Emergency Flashers (Emergency Lights)
-Make all four turn-signal lights flash at the same time
-Use our flashers to warn other drivers that your vehicle is stopped on or near the roadway or that you are moving very slowly
-Located on steering column or dashboard
-May be used to help other drivers see you when your car is stopped along the side of the road.
-Not designed to light the roadway when your vehicle is in motion
-Alert drivers, pedestrians, or cyclists to your presence or warn them of danger.
-Located on the steering wheel
-Before driving, make sure the horn works.
What Should You Check Before Entering Your Vehicle?
-Look for children playing nearby.
-Look for animals.
-Look for objects that may interfere with safe movement or that may damage the car's tires.
-Look under the vehicle for fresh stains that could indicate fluid leaks.
-Check for under-inflated tires, excessive wear, or tire damage.-Note which way your front wheels are turned. Direction in which your vehicle will go as soon as it begins moving forward.
-Check for damage or missing parts.
-Make sure that all lights and windows are clean and undamaged.
-In winter, scrape off snow and ice from car windows.
Under the Hood
-At least one a week or when you stop for gas, check the engine oil, radiator coolant, brake fluid, transmission fluid, and windshield-washer-fluid levels.
-Check the battery connections and make sure they're tight and that the battery terminals are free from corrosion.
Getting into the Vehicle
-Load packages and passengers from the curbside.
-Look carefully for approaching traffic before stepping into the roadway. Have keys in hand before you start.
-Walk around the front of the vehicle facing oncoming traffic.
-Wait for a break in traffic before opening the door, and it open it only far enough and long enough to allow you to get in the vehicle.
-Check inside vehicle for loose objects and unwanted passengers.
What Should You Check After Entering the Vehicle?
-Close and lock all doors.
-Adjust the seat.
-Adjust head restraint.
-Adjust the rearview and left and right sideview mirrors.
-Clean, defrog, or defrost the windows as necessary.
-Make sure there are no objects inside the vehicle that will block your view or tumble as you drive.
-Familiarize yourself with the controls for any devices you may need to use.
-Fasten your seatbelt and make sure all passengers have fastened theirs.
-Consult owner's manual for further information on the safe operation of your vehicle.