The thick tangle of capillary loops gound witin a corpuscle is known as
The proximinal convoluted tubule is lined with a
Simple columnar epithelium with a large surface area
The nephron loop makes a hairpin turn within the ____ and its ____ limb ends at the distal convoluted tubule.
Both the proximal ____ tubule and the ____ convoluted tubule reside in the cortex of the kidney
Which class of nephron is crucially important in establishing a salt concentration gradient in the kidney so that urine concentration can be regulated.
Cortical nephrons have their corpuscles near the ____ edge of the cortex and are the ____ common type of nephron.
Which is not correct regarding nephrons?
The renal corpuscle may be located in the renal cortex or renal medulla
Collecting ducts are larger than collecting ____?
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is located
near the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle
The main parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus are the
Granular cells and macula densa
Granular cells synthesize and release the enzyme
Macula densa cells monitor the concentration of
Sodium chloride in the fluid within the distal convoluted tubule
Peritubular capillaries are associated with the ____, while vasa recta are associated with the ____?
Convolutued tubules/nephron loop
Which is the correct sequence of arteries that a drop of blood would flow through as it entered the kidney and moved toward a glomerulus: Arcuate artery, Renal artery, Segmental artery, Interlobular artery, Interlobar artery.
An obstruction in the glomerulus would affect the flow of blood into the
As it is leaving the kidney, blood passes directly from the arcuate vein to the
Fluid contained within the lumen of a nephron loop would be considered to be
In the process of urine formation, first
filtrate is formed, then tubular fluid, then urine
Fluid contained within a minor calyx is called
Place the regions of the nephron in the correct order for the process of urine formation: A-capsular space of glomerulus, B-Nephron loop, C-Collecting duct, D-Distal convoluted tubule, E-Proximal convoluted tubule
Urine passes from a papillary duct into a
minor calyx, then to a major calyx, then to the renal pelvis
Upon leaving the renal pelvis, urine passes directly into a
How are the processes of a reabsorption and secretion related?
Materials move in opposite directions: reabsorption moves materials into the blood, whereas secretion removes them from the blood.
The active transport of solutes out of the blood and into the tubular fluid is called
The endothelium of the glomerulus is made up of ____ capillaries.
The basement membrane of the glomerulus is composed of glycoproteins and ____, and it restricts the passage of ____.
Podocytes are cells with foot-like processes called pedicels. Podocytes are found in the
Visceral layer of the glomerular capsule
Water and glucose are freely filtered through the filtration membrane of a
Mesangial cells help keep the basement clean by
Engulfing macromolecules caught in its basement membrane
Blood pressure in the glomerulus is ____ than in other capillaries due to the relatively large diameter of ____ arterioles.
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure is the pressure of
Blood in the glomerular capillaries
The presence of proteins in the plasma tends to
Draw fluid back into the glomerulus
Net filtration pressure is equal to the
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure minus the sum of the blood colloid osmotic pressure and capsular hydrostatic pressure
The units for measurement of glomerular filtration rate are
Liters per minute
Increases in NFP result in increases in
Sympathetic nervous system influences on glomerular filtration rate are considered ____ controls.
The tubuloglomerular feedback and myogenic mechanisms are both components of
If there is an increase in systemic blood pressure, the resulting stretch of afferent arterioles results in reflexive
Vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles to keep GFR normal
The tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism responds to an increase in
NaCl concentration in tubular fluid by signaling for afferent arteriole constriction with local chemical messengers.
If someone is bleeding severely, the body's adaptive response is to
Increase sympathetic stimulation of the kidney and therefore decrease GFR.
Sympathetic stimulation causes
Granular cells to release renin, which ultimately leads to mesangial cell contraction
Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney results in
constriction of afferent arterioles and a decrease in the surface area of the glomerulus
The hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) causes an ____ in GFR.
ANP is a hormone that causes
dilation of the afferent arterioles and inhibition of renin release
The hormone ANP is released from the heart and causes the urinary system to
Increase urine volume and decrease blood volume
To measure GFR, an individual's urine is examined for the concentration of a test substance that they received by injection. How is that test substance treated by the kidney?
It is filtered but neither reabsorbed nor secreted
To calculate GFR, the concentration of a marker molecule is measured in both the blood and the urine, and the total volume of urine produced is also measured. Which of the following sets of results indicates the highest GFR
High concentration of the marker in the urine, high volume of urine, low concentration of marker in the blood
Careful measurements of GFR are made by injection of ____, but approximations of GR can be made more simply by measuring renal plasma clearance of ____.
Renal plasma clearance is
The volume of plasma that can be entirely cleared of a substance in one minute
The normal pH for urine is
4.5 to 8.0
The specific gravity of urine is its density compared to that of water, and the more solutes urine has,
The higher the specific gravity
Urine flow from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder is produced by the
Peristalsis of the ureters
Which layer is not found in the wall of the ureter
What is the value of transitional epithelium in the urinary system?
It allows distension
Which layer is not found in the wall of the urinary bladder
No exceptions; All layers are found in the wall of the urinary bladder
Which is not correct regarding the urinary bladder
The inferior portion of the bladder is called the apex
The muscularis layer of the urinary bladder is commonly called the ____ muscle.
Within the urinary system, the storage reflex involves
relaxation of the detrusor muscle and contraction of the internal urethral sphincter
Individuals can voluntarily empty their bladder by contracting their abdominal muscles as part of the
Another name for urination, is a reflex triggered by stretch receptors in the urinary bladder, requires the opening of two sphincters, requires contraction of the muscularis layer of the urinary bladder.
Put the portions of the male urethra in the correct order from the urinary bladder to the exterior: A-Spongy part, B-Urethral orifice, C-Prostatic part, D-Membranous part.
Urination is triggered by a complex sequence of events called the ____ reflex.