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The thick tangle of capillary loops gound witin a corpuscle is known as


The proximinal convoluted tubule is lined with a

Simple columnar epithelium with a large surface area

The nephron loop makes a hairpin turn within the ____ and its ____ limb ends at the distal convoluted tubule.


Both the proximal ____ tubule and the ____ convoluted tubule reside in the cortex of the kidney


Which class of nephron is crucially important in establishing a salt concentration gradient in the kidney so that urine concentration can be regulated.

Juxtamedullary nephrons

Cortical nephrons have their corpuscles near the ____ edge of the cortex and are the ____ common type of nephron.


Which is not correct regarding nephrons?

The renal corpuscle may be located in the renal cortex or renal medulla

Collecting ducts are larger than collecting ____?


The juxtaglomerular apparatus is located

near the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle

The main parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus are the

Granular cells and macula densa

Granular cells synthesize and release the enzyme


Macula densa cells monitor the concentration of

Sodium chloride in the fluid within the distal convoluted tubule

Peritubular capillaries are associated with the ____, while vasa recta are associated with the ____?

Convolutued tubules/nephron loop

Which is the correct sequence of arteries that a drop of blood would flow through as it entered the kidney and moved toward a glomerulus: Arcuate artery, Renal artery, Segmental artery, Interlobular artery, Interlobar artery.


An obstruction in the glomerulus would affect the flow of blood into the

Efferent arteriole

As it is leaving the kidney, blood passes directly from the arcuate vein to the

Interlobar vein

Fluid contained within the lumen of a nephron loop would be considered to be

Tubular fluid

In the process of urine formation, first

filtrate is formed, then tubular fluid, then urine

Fluid contained within a minor calyx is called


Place the regions of the nephron in the correct order for the process of urine formation: A-capsular space of glomerulus, B-Nephron loop, C-Collecting duct, D-Distal convoluted tubule, E-Proximal convoluted tubule


Urine passes from a papillary duct into a

minor calyx, then to a major calyx, then to the renal pelvis

Upon leaving the renal pelvis, urine passes directly into a


How are the processes of a reabsorption and secretion related?

Materials move in opposite directions: reabsorption moves materials into the blood, whereas secretion removes them from the blood.

The active transport of solutes out of the blood and into the tubular fluid is called

Tubular secretion

The endothelium of the glomerulus is made up of ____ capillaries.


The basement membrane of the glomerulus is composed of glycoproteins and ____, and it restricts the passage of ____.

Proteoglycans/plasma proteins

Podocytes are cells with foot-like processes called pedicels. Podocytes are found in the

Visceral layer of the glomerular capsule

Water and glucose are freely filtered through the filtration membrane of a

Renal corpuscle

Mesangial cells help keep the basement clean by

Engulfing macromolecules caught in its basement membrane

Blood pressure in the glomerulus is ____ than in other capillaries due to the relatively large diameter of ____ arterioles.


Glomerular hydrostatic pressure is the pressure of

Blood in the glomerular capillaries

The presence of proteins in the plasma tends to

Draw fluid back into the glomerulus

Net filtration pressure is equal to the

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure minus the sum of the blood colloid osmotic pressure and capsular hydrostatic pressure

The units for measurement of glomerular filtration rate are

Liters per minute

Increases in NFP result in increases in


Sympathetic nervous system influences on glomerular filtration rate are considered ____ controls.


The tubuloglomerular feedback and myogenic mechanisms are both components of

renal autoregulation

If there is an increase in systemic blood pressure, the resulting stretch of afferent arterioles results in reflexive

Vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles to keep GFR normal

The tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism responds to an increase in

NaCl concentration in tubular fluid by signaling for afferent arteriole constriction with local chemical messengers.

If someone is bleeding severely, the body's adaptive response is to

Increase sympathetic stimulation of the kidney and therefore decrease GFR.

Sympathetic stimulation causes

Granular cells to release renin, which ultimately leads to mesangial cell contraction

Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney results in

constriction of afferent arterioles and a decrease in the surface area of the glomerulus

The hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) causes an ____ in GFR.


ANP is a hormone that causes

dilation of the afferent arterioles and inhibition of renin release

The hormone ANP is released from the heart and causes the urinary system to

Increase urine volume and decrease blood volume

To measure GFR, an individual's urine is examined for the concentration of a test substance that they received by injection. How is that test substance treated by the kidney?

It is filtered but neither reabsorbed nor secreted

To calculate GFR, the concentration of a marker molecule is measured in both the blood and the urine, and the total volume of urine produced is also measured. Which of the following sets of results indicates the highest GFR

High concentration of the marker in the urine, high volume of urine, low concentration of marker in the blood

Careful measurements of GFR are made by injection of ____, but approximations of GR can be made more simply by measuring renal plasma clearance of ____.


Renal plasma clearance is

The volume of plasma that can be entirely cleared of a substance in one minute

The normal pH for urine is

4.5 to 8.0

The specific gravity of urine is its density compared to that of water, and the more solutes urine has,

The higher the specific gravity

Urine flow from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder is produced by the

Peristalsis of the ureters

Which layer is not found in the wall of the ureter


What is the value of transitional epithelium in the urinary system?

It allows distension

Which layer is not found in the wall of the urinary bladder

No exceptions; All layers are found in the wall of the urinary bladder

Which is not correct regarding the urinary bladder

The inferior portion of the bladder is called the apex

The muscularis layer of the urinary bladder is commonly called the ____ muscle.


Within the urinary system, the storage reflex involves

relaxation of the detrusor muscle and contraction of the internal urethral sphincter

Individuals can voluntarily empty their bladder by contracting their abdominal muscles as part of the

Valsalva maneuver

Micturition is

Another name for urination, is a reflex triggered by stretch receptors in the urinary bladder, requires the opening of two sphincters, requires contraction of the muscularis layer of the urinary bladder.

Put the portions of the male urethra in the correct order from the urinary bladder to the exterior: A-Spongy part, B-Urethral orifice, C-Prostatic part, D-Membranous part.


Urination is triggered by a complex sequence of events called the ____ reflex.


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