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AP psych chapter 10 - Development
ciccarelli 2nd edition
Terms in this set (71)
The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death.
Research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time.
Research design in which several different age groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time.
Research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design but are also followed and assessed for a period of time
The influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
The influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.
The science of inherited traits.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism.
Section of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements.
Tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA.
Referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait.
Referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene.
The moment at which the female becomes pregnant.
The female sex cell/egg.
The union of the ovum and sperm.
A cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm.
Identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo.
Often called fraternal twins, occurring when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time; twice as common as identical twins.
Recessive genetic disorders
Cistic fibrosis, PKU, sickle cell anemia, TAY-SACHS disorder.
Down syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, Turner's syndrome
name for the developing organism from two weeks to eight weeks after fertilization.
the period from two to eight weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop.
times during which certain environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant.
any factor than can cause a birth defect (see chart pg 395)
the time from about eight weeks after conception until the birth of the child.
name for the developing organism from eight weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby.
1. grasping 2. startle (Moro) 3. rooting 4. stepping 5. sucking
Motor milestones (age in months)
1. raising head and chest (2-r) 2. rolling (2-5) 3. sit with support (4-6) 4. sit without support (6-7) 5. crawling (7-8) 6. walking (8-18)
Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children (1896-1980), Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational.
the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory
in his case, a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events (Piaget)
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development 0-2 yrs; object permanence; concepts/mental images represent real things (people, objects, events); infant uses senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment.
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development 2-7 yrs; pretend; unable to conserve, logically reason, or consider many characteristics of an object; uses language a a means of exploring the world
Piaget's third stage of cognitive development 7-12 yrs; conserve, reverse thinking, and classify objects in terms of many characteristics; start to think logically about concrete objects; no abstract thinking
Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development 12-adult; abstract reasoning about hypothetical events/situations; systematically examine/test hypotheses
knowlege that an object exists even when it is not in sight
inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes
In Piaget's theory, the tendency of a young child to focus only on one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features
In Piaget's theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature
In Piaget's theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action
1896-1934; russian developmental psychologist who emphasized the role of the social environment on cognitive development and proposed the idea of zones of proximal development
In Vygotsky theory, the process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky's concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher
5 stages of lanuage development
1. Cooing (2 mths) 2. Babbling (6 mths) 3. one-word speech (1 yrs) 4. Telegraphic speech (1.5 yrs) 5. Whole sentences (2 and up)
the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well estabished at birth, such as easy, difficlt, and slow to warm up
the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver
3 temperment styles
1. Easy (happy baby) 2. Difficult (loud, active, crabby baby) 3. Slow to warm up (quiet, inbetween)
4 attachment styles (Ainsworth)
1. Secure (strong attachment to mom but willing to explore 2. Avoidant (reacts little to mom, willing to explore 3. Ambivalent (clinging and unwilling to explore) 4. Disorganized-disoriented (fearful, distrustful)
8 stages of Psychosocial development based on developmental crisis and reaction to the crisis (pg 412)
the culture's expectations for masculine or feminine behavior, including attitudes, actions, and personality traits
the process of acquiring gender role characteristics
the individual's sense of being male or female
13 to early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult
the physical changes that occur in the body a sexual development reaches its peak
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm
type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent's thoughts and characteristics as they are.
first level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior
second level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by conforming to the society's norms of behavior
third level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the person's behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the indiviual and that may be in disagreement with accepted social norms
identity versus role confusion
Erickson's fifth stage of personality development in which the adolescent mst find a consistent sense of self
stage theory of moral development (preconventional, conventional, and postconventional)
the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman's reproductive capability
gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of middle-aged males
an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self
providing guidance to one's children or the next generation, or contributing to the well-being of the next generation through career or volunteer work.
style of parenting in which parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child
style of parenting in which parent makes few, if any demands on a child's behavior
permissive parenting in which parents are uninvolved with child
permissive parenting in which parents are so involved that children are allowed to behave without set limits
style of parenting in which parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a child's behavior
sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego
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