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At which stage of life is the percentage of fluid in the human body highest?


In elderly individuals, 75% of body weight is made up of fluid. (T or F)


When comparing two individuals of the same body weight, the one with more muscle and less fat will have a ____ percentage of ____ in their body


When comparing a lean adult female to a lean adult male, which will most likely have a higher percentage of body fluid?

The male

Fluid imbalances are more common in individuals with a ____ percentage of body fluid.


Elderly individuals generally have a ____ percentage of body fluid and are therefor ____ prone to fluid imbalances.


A comparison of the two major body fluid compartments reveals that

Two thirds of the total fluid is within our cells and one third is outside our cells.

Most of the fluid in our body is contained within our


The plasma of our blood constitutes ____ than half of the fluid in our body; plasma is part of the ____ fluid.


Interstitial fluid composes about ____ of the body's extracellular fluid.


Interstitial fluid has a relatively ____ concentration of sodium and chloride; the concentrations of ions within the interstitial fluid and blood plasma are very ____.


Which statement accurately describes the permeability to water of the cell membrane and the capillary wall?

Both the plasma membrane and the capillary wall are permeable to water

Drinking a liter of water will cause the osmolarity of blood plasma to


If someone runs a marathon through a desert while eating pretzels and not drinking water, their plasma osmolarity

Rises and becomes hypertonic to the interstitial and intracellular fluid compartments.

As an individual becomes dehydrated, the net movement of fluid in their body is from ____ toward ____.


When fluid intake equals fluid output, and there is a normal distribution of solvent and solutes in the body's fluid compartments, fluid ____ exists.


Which type of intake accounts for most of our daily fluid intake?

Preformed water

Water lost through feces is considered ____ water loss.

Sensible, obligatory

Facultative water loss is loss that

Is controlled by hormone effects on the kidney

In the condition of volume excess, fluid gain involves

No change in the osmolarity of body fluidd

If someone in an accident suffered severe burns as well as hemorrhage, they would be at high risk for

Volume depletion

Renal failure would likely lead to

Volume excess

Diabetes mellitus, profuse sweating, and hyposecretion of ADH can each lead to


If a runner drinks too much water before a marathon, they run a risk f water intoxication, also known as

Hypotonic hydration

Extreme hypotonic hydration can cause brain cells to


Edema is an example of

Fluid sequestration

Blockage of lymphatic vessels or surgical removal of lymphatic vessels increases the liklihood of

edema, which is an example of fluid sequestration

Feelings of thirstiness are brought on by

Decreases in salivary secretions and increases in blood osmolarity

Decreases in blood pressure turn ____ the thirst center of the brain


Fluid intake causes blood volume to


The thrist center f the brain is located in the


Researchers have inflated balloons inside the stomachs of experimental subjects and have found that distention of the stomach causes thirst to


Which of the following does not turn off te thirst center of the brain

Decreased salivary secretions

When compared with the effects of blood pressure and osmolarity on fluid intae, the effects of saliva and stomach distention are more ____ but less ____.


Angiotensin II, aldosterone, and ADH each help decrease

Urine output

The hormone ANP

Increases urine output and decreases blood volume

Fixed acids are generally regulated by physiological buffering provided by the


Most nonelectrolytes are ____ bonded ____ molecules


The molecule HCl is an example of a(n)


To account for their effects on osmotic pressure, the concentration of electrolytes is often expressed in

Milliequivalents per liter

When NaCl is added to body fluids it results in the addition of

Two solute particles per NaCl molecule and exerts twice the osmotic pressure of the same number of nonelectrolyte molecules

The most abundant cation within cells is


The most abundant anion in the extracellula fluid is


Which ion is the principal solute of the ECF and is crucial for neuromuscular and renal function?


How are sodium levels and blood pressure related?

Increased plasma sodium levels increase water retention, blood volume, and blood pressure

Most potassium loss from the body occus through


When the pH of the ECF decreases, K+ starts to move from the

ICF to the ECF

Insulin causes blood plasma levels of potassium to ____ by ____ activity of the Na+/K+ pumps


An elevated level of potassium in the blood is referred to as


How does the hormone aldosterone influence potassium levels?

It increases potassium secretion by the kidnets and decreases potassium blood concentration

Calcium hardens bone and teeth, but it levels are carefully controlled throughout the body. Low levels of calcium within cells are maintained by

Pumps that move calcium out of cells or into the sarcoplasmic reticulum

Angiotensin II triggers

Vasoconstiction and decreased urine output from the kidneys

Angiotensin II causes a(n)

stimulation of the thirst center and increased release of ADH

Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal cortex to release


Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is synthesized in the ____ and released from the____.

Hypothalamus/posterior pituitary

Changes in blood osmolarity within capillaries of the hypothalamus are a signal for ADH release. The neurons that are sensitive to these changes in osmolarity are?


High levels of ADH cause

Vasoconstriction and therefore increases in blood pressure

The adrenal gland releases aldosterone in response to

Angiotensin II and decreased blood plasma sodium levels

Aldosterone exerts effects on principal cell of the kidney by causing

Increased numbers of Na+/K+ pumps

Aldosterone causes kidny tubules to

Reabsorb more sodium and water, and secrete more potassium

The stimulus that directly triggers release of ANP is

Increased stretch of the heart atria

The hormone ANP causes systemic blood vessels to

Dilate, which lowers blood pressure

Atrial natriuretic peptide causes ____ of afferent arterioles and ____ of mesangial cells.


Atrial natriuretic peptide (ADP) inhibits the release of

Aldosterone, ADH and renin

In the brain ADH ____ the thirst center, and in the kidneys ADH causes an increase in water ____.


Carbonic acid is referred to as ____ acid since it is produced from a gas that evaporates quickly


Most of the fixed acid in our body comes from

Acid absorbed from the GI tract

Severe diarrhea leads to a ____ in the ____ of the blood


When blood starts to become more alkaline than normal the renal tubules begin to

Secrete bicarbonate while reabsorbing H+ in exchange through type B cells

The process by which the kidneys eliminate excess acid or base is relatively

Slow (takes hours to days) but powerful

If someone begins to hyperventilate due to anxiety, the CO2 concentration in their blood decreases; this causes ____ in blood pH

An increase

The amine groups contained within amino acids of proteins can act as weak


Both intracellular proteins (such as hmoglobin) and extracellular proteins (such as plasma proteins) can act as

Chemical buffers

If a strong acid were to add H+ to the intracellular fluid, the effect would most likely be buffered, as

HPO42-would act as a weak base and accept an H+ to become H2PO4

The bicarbonate buffering system is the most important buffering system in the

extracellular fluid

When bicarbonate acts as a weak base and accepts a proton, the molecule ____ acid is formed


Water occupies two main fluid compartments within the body, the intracellular fluid compartments and the extracellular fluid compartment. Which of the following statements is true concerning the volume of intracellular fluid?

Approximately two thirds of the water is in the intracellular fluid compartment

Individuals with a lower percentage of body fluid are more susceptible to

Fluid imbalance

When the body cells are hypotonic to the blood plasma, water will move from ____ fluid to ____ fluid.


On a hot day where fluid output ____ fluid intake, the body is in a danger of a fluid imbalance


Drinking alcohol increases the production of dilute urine, dehydrating the body. In this example, decreasing preformed water intake will help rehydrate the body. (T or F)


Which stimulus for increasing thirst and water intake is monitored by the thirst center directly?

Increased blood osmolarity

A decrease in blood pressure

results in the release of renin from the kidneys

When blood osmolarity drops

ADH release is decreased

Carbonic acid dissociates into a bicarbonate ion and hydrogen ion, thereforeit is a(n)


The magnesium ion is a major electrolyte in the body (T or F)


Ingesting too much sodium may lead to

Hypertonic extracellular fluid

Sodium is an important electrolyte because

It contributes significantly to blood plasma osmolarity

The most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid is the

Chloride ion

Antiduretic hormone release results in

Increased water reabsorption in the kidneys

Since aldosterone increases retention of sodium, blood osmolarity is increased as a result. (T or F)


A patient who secretes too much atrial natriuretic peptide may be in danger of

Low blood pressure

Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium, whereas aldosterone stimulates the kidneys to eliminate more sodium in the urine. (T or F)


Lactic acid is an example of a ____ acid.


A diabetic patient has high levels of ketoacids in his blood. What organ system will help regulate this acid?


As blood pH becomes too high, the kidneys

Reabsorb H+

When carbon dioxide levels are low in the blood plasma, pH may be too high. The respiratory system ____ ventilation, resulting in more plasma carbon dioxide and a lowered pH


In the phosphate buffering system, a strong acid is buffered to produce a weak base. (T or F)


A patient has a PCO2 of 50 mmHg. In other words, this patient has

Respiratory acidosis

Metabolic acid-base disturbances occur when changes in respiratory function results in particularly high or low levels of plasma carbon dioxide. (T or F)


When arterial blood levels of bicarbonate exceed 26 mEq/L, this is known as

Metabolic alkalosis

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