When comparing two individuals of the same body weight, the one with more muscle and less fat will have a ____ percentage of ____ in their body
When comparing a lean adult female to a lean adult male, which will most likely have a higher percentage of body fluid?
Elderly individuals generally have a ____ percentage of body fluid and are therefor ____ prone to fluid imbalances.
A comparison of the two major body fluid compartments reveals that
Two thirds of the total fluid is within our cells and one third is outside our cells.
The plasma of our blood constitutes ____ than half of the fluid in our body; plasma is part of the ____ fluid.
Interstitial fluid has a relatively ____ concentration of sodium and chloride; the concentrations of ions within the interstitial fluid and blood plasma are very ____.
Which statement accurately describes the permeability to water of the cell membrane and the capillary wall?
Both the plasma membrane and the capillary wall are permeable to water
If someone runs a marathon through a desert while eating pretzels and not drinking water, their plasma osmolarity
Rises and becomes hypertonic to the interstitial and intracellular fluid compartments.
As an individual becomes dehydrated, the net movement of fluid in their body is from ____ toward ____.
When fluid intake equals fluid output, and there is a normal distribution of solvent and solutes in the body's fluid compartments, fluid ____ exists.
If someone in an accident suffered severe burns as well as hemorrhage, they would be at high risk for
If a runner drinks too much water before a marathon, they run a risk f water intoxication, also known as
Blockage of lymphatic vessels or surgical removal of lymphatic vessels increases the liklihood of
edema, which is an example of fluid sequestration
Feelings of thirstiness are brought on by
Decreases in salivary secretions and increases in blood osmolarity
Researchers have inflated balloons inside the stomachs of experimental subjects and have found that distention of the stomach causes thirst to
Which of the following does not turn off te thirst center of the brain
Decreased salivary secretions
When compared with the effects of blood pressure and osmolarity on fluid intae, the effects of saliva and stomach distention are more ____ but less ____.
To account for their effects on osmotic pressure, the concentration of electrolytes is often expressed in
Milliequivalents per liter
When NaCl is added to body fluids it results in the addition of
Two solute particles per NaCl molecule and exerts twice the osmotic pressure of the same number of nonelectrolyte molecules
Which ion is the principal solute of the ECF and is crucial for neuromuscular and renal function?
How are sodium levels and blood pressure related?
Increased plasma sodium levels increase water retention, blood volume, and blood pressure
Insulin causes blood plasma levels of potassium to ____ by ____ activity of the Na+/K+ pumps
How does the hormone aldosterone influence potassium levels?
It increases potassium secretion by the kidnets and decreases potassium blood concentration
Calcium hardens bone and teeth, but it levels are carefully controlled throughout the body. Low levels of calcium within cells are maintained by
Pumps that move calcium out of cells or into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is synthesized in the ____ and released from the____.
Changes in blood osmolarity within capillaries of the hypothalamus are a signal for ADH release. The neurons that are sensitive to these changes in osmolarity are?
The adrenal gland releases aldosterone in response to
Angiotensin II and decreased blood plasma sodium levels
Aldosterone exerts effects on principal cell of the kidney by causing
Increased numbers of Na+/K+ pumps
Atrial natriuretic peptide causes ____ of afferent arterioles and ____ of mesangial cells.
In the brain ADH ____ the thirst center, and in the kidneys ADH causes an increase in water ____.
Carbonic acid is referred to as ____ acid since it is produced from a gas that evaporates quickly
When blood starts to become more alkaline than normal the renal tubules begin to
Secrete bicarbonate while reabsorbing H+ in exchange through type B cells
The process by which the kidneys eliminate excess acid or base is relatively
Slow (takes hours to days) but powerful
If someone begins to hyperventilate due to anxiety, the CO2 concentration in their blood decreases; this causes ____ in blood pH
Both intracellular proteins (such as hmoglobin) and extracellular proteins (such as plasma proteins) can act as
If a strong acid were to add H+ to the intracellular fluid, the effect would most likely be buffered, as
HPO42-would act as a weak base and accept an H+ to become H2PO4
When bicarbonate acts as a weak base and accepts a proton, the molecule ____ acid is formed
Water occupies two main fluid compartments within the body, the intracellular fluid compartments and the extracellular fluid compartment. Which of the following statements is true concerning the volume of intracellular fluid?
Approximately two thirds of the water is in the intracellular fluid compartment
When the body cells are hypotonic to the blood plasma, water will move from ____ fluid to ____ fluid.
On a hot day where fluid output ____ fluid intake, the body is in a danger of a fluid imbalance
Drinking alcohol increases the production of dilute urine, dehydrating the body. In this example, decreasing preformed water intake will help rehydrate the body. (T or F)
Which stimulus for increasing thirst and water intake is monitored by the thirst center directly?
Increased blood osmolarity
Since aldosterone increases retention of sodium, blood osmolarity is increased as a result. (T or F)
Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium, whereas aldosterone stimulates the kidneys to eliminate more sodium in the urine. (T or F)
A diabetic patient has high levels of ketoacids in his blood. What organ system will help regulate this acid?
When carbon dioxide levels are low in the blood plasma, pH may be too high. The respiratory system ____ ventilation, resulting in more plasma carbon dioxide and a lowered pH
Metabolic acid-base disturbances occur when changes in respiratory function results in particularly high or low levels of plasma carbon dioxide. (T or F)