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EDU214 ESL Chapter 1-9 Book Test
The guiding questions and the end of chapter questions. Ch= question ch =answer.
Terms in this set (46)
Ch 1: What kinds of diversity do we find in the category of "English Language Learners?"
ch 1: Race, Language, Education Level, Social Class, Parent Education, etc.
Ch 1: What pros and cons are there in the different labels for "English Language Learners?"
ch 1: Pros: knowing academic/social stance
Cons: labeling students limits their growth/thoughts of themselves (stuck in that label)
Ch 1: Where do we find English Language Learners in the US, past and presently?
ch 1: Today: California, Texas, Florida, New York, Illinois, Arizona.
Past: immigrating from Latin America, Asian countries. Past immigrants from Europe and Canada
Ch 1: Why do teachers need to know specific information about their ELL's home language and literacy, proficiency, educational histories, and sociocultural experiences?
ch 1: Teacher needs to be relatable, know if there are reasons for a student's actions in class, and incorporating culture to the classroom
How can teachers learn about their student's backgrounds?
ch 1: Looking into academic profiles, research on internet.
Ch 1: Why is it important for teachers to know their student's backgrounds?
ch 1: They are able to understand or see reasons for a student's behavior, reasons for actions in the class, and any struggles a student is facing.
Ch 2: What do teachers need to know about language, and why do they need to know it?
ch 2: Need to know: phonology, morphology, syntax, sematics, pragmatics lexicon and language variation.
Why: see how students are having trouble, how to communicate, how to properly use language, they are the example in the classroom
Ch 2: What does it mean to "know a language"?
ch 2: You know the basic vocabulary an grammar of that language. Also includes knowing how to use the language in different language settings (BICS v CALPS)
Ch 2: How do people acquire language?
ch 2: The Language Acquisition Device (LAD) in the brain
Ch 2: What do theories of second language acquisition tell us?
ch 2: Behaviorist Theory: language is acquired by response and habit formation.
Innatist Perspective: learn language subconsciously understand language comprehensively
Cognitive Perspective: learn language through interaction
Social-Cultural Perspective: learn language through interaction and collaboration
Ch 2: Describe YOUR approach to second language teaching.
ch 2: Subjective to you. I said grammar-translation (direct translation for understanding) and natural approaches (L1 is usable in content)
Ch 3: How has the policy context surrounding the education of ELLs changed in the US?
ch 3: As needs became more apparent policy changed. Gov't gave out grants and school funding if eligible for Title VII. Put laws into place for ELLs being given a better chance of an education.
Ch 3: How do federal and state policies influence the education levels of ELLs on the local district and school levels?
ch 3: If schools want funding federally, they must oblige to federal education policies, including ESL ones.
Ch 3: How have the courts influenced the education of ELLs?
ch 3: Positively. Schools are using the courts to promote ESL teaching saying that not having ESL is taking away from the rights of the Constitution, and discrimination.
Ch 3: How can educators use their understanding of the policy and legislative context surrounding ELL education to enhance their ELLs' access to educational opportunities?
ch 3: Teachers can use policy to make sure their students are receiving their rights to education in their native language, schools are allowing English learning as best as possible.
Ch 3: How has federal policy changed for ELLs since 1968? How does Title III of NCLB compare to the Bilingual Education Act?
ch 3: Many states repealed educational English-only education laws and instituted their own bilingual education mandates. The Title III does not make any distinction between bilingual and non bilingual programs, as well as only requiring LEP students being placed in language instruction education programs, as well as having the sole purpose for school being English learning.
Ch 3: What are AMAOs and AYP? What is the consequnce for schools if they don't make AMAOs
ch 3: Annual measurable achievement objectives: targets/goals set by the state of student testing that determines funding
Adequate yearly progress:amount of progress a school makes towards a goal
If they do not make AMAOs, funding is cut if they do not improve.
Ch 3:What has been the role of the courts in guiding federal policy for ELLs? What case law has id's the main responsibility for schools in meeting their needs? Which case set forth a test for determining the adequacy of ELL programs, and what are the 3 prongs of this test?
ch 3: Making sure that students are receiving the education equally and correctly as well as meeting standards. Serna v Portales. Castaneda v Pickard-- minority students programs must be 1) based on sound education theory 2) implemented effectively w/ sufficient resources and personnel 3) evaluated to determine whether effective
Ch 4: What are the essential components of any instructional program for ELLS?
ch 4: English as a second instruction, content-area instruction, primary language support
Ch 4: What is the difference between ESL and sheltered instruction?
ch 4: ESL instruction: programs specifically used for teaching English
Sheltered instruction: focused on teaching academic content
Ch 4: What are the pros and cons of each of the English-medium and bilingual education programs?
ch 4: Pull-out Ed: PROS- individualized, heightened abilities CONS- teaching doesn't match curriculum, expense, student out of classroom, no teacher responsibility
In-Class ESL instruction: PROS- instruction by home teacher, coordination between teachers, content area instruction in both classrooms CONS- teacher certification curriculum focused on ESL understanding not normal students
Sheltered Immersion: PROS- certified teachers, native language teachers normalized English education CONS- short program, not enough language learned
Newcomer Program: PROS- trained teachers, native language, full educational support, sheltered instruction, personalized instruction CONS- segregating ELLs together, lack of content area instruction, expensive, fail if not committed
Submersion: PROS- forced to learn English CONS- not full understanding, no tailored teaching
Ch 4: How can educators determine what type of program is appropriate for ELLS?
ch 4: following Baker's typology to their curriculum
Ch 5: What are the differences between testing, assessment, and evaluation?
ch 5: testing is the administration of tests, assessment is planing collecting and analyzing a student's performance data, and evaluation is using evidence to make a judgement of a student's progress
Ch 5: Why should ELL educators be wary of over reliance on standardized tests of ELLs academic achievement and English language proficiency?
ch 5: there is variability in the tests. Some are graded differently, and some are only single test scores--not one assessing the total of what the ELLs have learned
Ch 5: Why is there a need for multiple measures?
ch 5: having a student's educational future lie on one test score isn't fair to the student
Ch 5: How can ELL educators provide valid and reliable evidence of ELLs growth and acheivement?
ch 5: using multiple measures like portfolios, projects, and varying test scores from the beginning of the year to the present.
Ch 5: How can ELL educators use evidence of ELL growth and achievement to inform their decision making?
ch 5: they can use evidence to see how the students are learning and applying knowledge so that they teacher knows how to adjust their teaching methods.
Ch 6: What does the research tell us about the relationships between ELLs oral language, literacy and educational achievement/development?
ch 6: little research known. Oral language takes a large time to gain. Academic development is heightened with native language, and educational achievement isn't shown correctly with only standardized tests.
Ch 6: How can understanding of ELLs listening and speaking strengths and needs inform a teacher's choices of instructional approaches, methods, and strategies?
ch 6: Teachers can create a better educational experience. They can use different correction techniques and teaching techniques to target the entire class and individuals.
Ch 6: How can the TESOL standards guide instruction and assessment for ELLs?
ch 6: TESOL standards can help assess the student's success level and placement by using MPIs and how they respond to MPIs.
Ch 6: How can teachers promote oral language use in the classroom as a foundation for literacy and academic achievement/development?
ch 6: students telling stories, retelling stories, singing songs/chants, give presentations/speeches, talking pair buddies sharing and asking questions. This increases speaking and academic language abilities.
Ch 6: How can teachers promote higher levels of oral language proficiency?
ch 6: introducing cooperative learning, and role play; forcing students to use academic language.
Ch 7: How wave the reading wars influenced literacy instruction in schools?
ch 7: reading wars influence reading teaching. There is argument in approaches to teaching reading: whole language (multi faceted learning), skills based (linear approach with phonics and structure)
Ch 7: How does reading promote second language acquisition
ch 7: reading gives ELLs an almost unlimited access to different levels/complexities of English reading materials, and promotes independent reading by letting ELLs chose their books.
Ch 7: How can teachers balance their attention to meaning and skills within the context of reading instruction for ELLs?
ch 7: teachers can use reading instruction by using approached strictly tailored for ELLs and introducing new texts that are high quality and enhance and encourage the ELLs' skills.
Ch 7: What does the research tell us about effective reading instruction for ELLs?
ch 7: Instruction needs to not be apart of the mainstream literacy instruction approaches. Instruction needs heavy English oral language development, direct/indirect interactive instruction, and native language proficiency transfers into English.
Ch 7: How can understanding for ELL reading strength inform a teacher of approaches, methods and strategies?
ch 7: This allows teachers to properly challenge, engage an critique a student without the student becoming frustrated.
Ch 8: What does the research tell us about effective writing instruction for ELLs?
ch 8: research says writing development is similar to how native speakers learn, ELLs writing is dependent on the amount of English known, oral skills impact text-writing skills.
Ch 8: What does a theory of second language writing include?
ch 8: an ESL writer, a native speaker as the ESL writer's primary audience, the writer's test, contexts for writing, and interactions in education settings
Ch 8: How is writing related to oral language and reading?
ch 8: By reading ans speaking at appointed levels. Writing is directly correlated with the levels at which the student speaks and reads. The stronger one becomes, so does the other.
Ch 8: How can an understanding of ELLs' writing strengths and needs inform a teacher's choice of instructional approaches, methods and strategies?
ch 8: This tells a teacher what the student needs to work on an what their strengths are. Teachers can use different methods like journals, workshops, and guided writing to modify lesson plans and view student's needs.
Ch 9: Why is it important for sheltered instruction to include both content and language objectives?
ch 9: content-area instruction is also a type of language instruction for ELLs that support but not replace ESL instruction. It also makes ELLs learn language that their English speaking peers know/understand.
Ch 9: What are the benefits of an integrated, thematic approach to content-area instruction for ELLs?
ch 9: Teachers are able to cover more information in themes, and themes can be explored through all content levels are varying degrees, crossing over into different subjects that encourages the locking in of concepts.
Ch 9: What do the languages of math, science, and social studies include, and who is responsible for teaching them?
ch 9: Math- numbers, syntax semantic properties, text features
Science- specialized vocabulary, experiments, analytic thinking principles, communication techniques
Social Studies- abstract thinking, vocabulary, complex events
Teachers are responsible for responsible for teaching them.
Ch 9: How can teachers integrate culture into their content-area instruction?
ch 9: Bringing about content that is relatable to the student's lives, families, and current living situations, representing language minorities in teaching lessons, focusing on a certain study, connecting instruction to their own lives.
Ch 9: How can teachers differentiate their instruction for the ELLs in their classroom?
ch 9: Teachers should tailor instruction uniquely to each student using formative assessments that will develop English language.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Content Review-154 ESL Supplemental
TeXes ESL Supplemental 154 Exam Comp 1
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