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where does the ligament of the femoral head attach? what's it's purpose?
attaches from the head of femur to the acetabular fossa/ connects the femur to the acetabulum
where does the transverse acetabular ligament attach? purpose?
connect the two sides of the acetabular notch/ appears superficial to the ligament of the femoral head... may blend though
in the equine, what is the extra ligament associated with the coxofemoral joint?
Accessory ligament inserts on the non-articular side of the head of femur
what is the purpose of obturator sulcus?
it's a groove for the obturator nerve- located at the cranial end of the obturator foramen
what is the specific area called on the femur where the ligament of the head of the femur inserts?
fovea capitis femoris
where do the vastus parts of the quadriceps femoris attach?
smooth, proximal, cranial border of femur
what is the patella?
sesamoid in the tendon of insertion of the large quadriceps femoris that extends the stifle joint
where are the medial/lateral fabellae found?
in the tendons of origin of the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius m.
what side of the tibia does the fibula articulate?
lateral- a facet which also provides origin for part of the peroneus longus(fibularis longus) and cranial tibial mm.
what attaches to the tibial tuberosity?
quadriceps femoris, biceps femoris, sartorius all attach by means of the patellar ligament and patella
what is the purpose of the patella?
redirects the tendon of insertion of the quadriceps
helps protect tendon and joint
what is the significance of the lateral malleolus of the fibula?
contains grooves that redirect the force of contraction of the tendons of the peroneus longus, lateral digital extensor, peroneus brevis
name the equine metatarsal bones medially to laterally..
metatarsal 2(med) -- metatarsal 3--metatarsal 4(lat)
middle gluteal m.
greater trochanter, gluteal surface/ extend hip, abduct limb AND rotate Medially (M=middle and medially)
internal obturator, external obturator, gemilli, quadratus femoris mm. all function to do what??
rotate limb LATERALLY
antagonists to the middle and deep gluteal mm.
tensor fascia latae m.
tuber coxae, lateral femoral fascia/flex hip, extend stifle, tense lateral femoral fascia
biceps femoris m.
sacrotuberous lig., ischiatic tuberosity, patella, patellar lig., cranial tibia, tuber calcanei/ extend hip and hock, flex and extend stifle
what muscles make up the common calcanean tendon?
biceps femoris, semi-T, gracilis, gastrocnemius,superficial digital flexor mm.
ischiatic tuberosity, tibial tuberosity, tuber calcanei/ extend hip and hock, flex stifle
ischiatic tuberosity, caudal femur, proximal tibia/ extend hip, flex and extend stifle
pelvic symphysis, cranial tibia, tuber calcanei/ extend hip and hock, flex stifle, aDduct limb
2 parts- caudal is thinner (only 1 in equine)
tuber coxae, patella, cranial tibia/ flex hip and flex/ extend the stifle
Quadriceps femoris m.
4 heads all fuse distally
All attach to the tibial tuberosity/ extend stifle
rectus femoris attaches to the ilium(flexes hip)
what are the 4 heads of the quadriceps femoris m.?
Rectus femoris- hot dog
vastus lateralis, vastus medialis- bun
vastus intermedias- under the hot dog
cranial tibial m.
extensor groove of tibia, plantar surface of the base of metatarsals I-II
Flexes tarsus, rotates paw laterally
what is different about the cranial tibial m. in the horse?
splits into 2 branches after the peroneus tertius tendon
Dorsal branch inserts on metatarsal tuberosity
Medial branch= Cunean tendon, inserts on fused tarsals 1 and 2
what is the cunean tendon? what's associated with it?
the medial branch of the cranial tibial m. in the equine
long digital extensor m.
extensor fossa of femur, extensor process of distal phalanges II-V
flexes tarsus, extends digits
peroneus longus m.
lateral condyle of tibia, tarsal bone 4, plantar part of base of metatarsals
flexes tarsus, Rotates paw medially
what is the antagonist to the peroneus longus m. regarding rotation of the paw?
cranial tibial m. rotates laterally
peroneus longus m. rotates medially
what's different about the peroneus longus m. in the horse?
it is called the peroneus tertius
divides into 2 branches at the hock- dorsal, lateral
medial and lateral supracondylar tuberosities of femur, tuber calcanei
flex stifle, extend tarsus
superficial digital flexor m.
lateral supracondylar tuberosity of femur, tuber calcanei, bases of midle phalanges of digits II-V
flexes stifle, extends tarsus, flexes first 2 digital joints of 4 main digits
deep digital flexor m.
3 muscles make up: medial and lateral dig. flexors & caudal tibial m.
proximal end of tibia, fibula, plantar surface of base of each distal phalanx
extends tarsus, flexes digits
large animal only
lies between the cranial greater trochanter and accessory head of the middle gluteal m.
calcanean bursae (3)
subcutaneous calcanean bursa
intertendinous calcanean bursa
sub tendinous calcanean bursa of the gastrocnemius m.
large animal retinaculums
proximal extensor retinaculum
middle extensor retinaculum
distal extensor retinaculum
lateral extensor retinaculum
small animal retinaculums
crural extensor retinaculum
tarsal extensor retinaculum
what muscles does the proximal extensor retinaculum hold in?
cranial tibial m, long digital extensor m., peroneus tertius m.
what muscles does the middle extensor retinaculum hold in?
forms a loop around the long digital extensor m.
what muscles does the crural extensor retinaculum hold in?
cranial tibial m., long digital extensor m.
what two ligaments are associated with the hip joint?
tranverse acetabular ligament
ligament of the head of the femur
boundaries of the pelvic outlet?
ischiatic arch, first caudal vertebra, superficial gluteal m., muscles of pelvic diaphragm, sacrotuberous ligament
what muscles form the common calcaneal tendon in the canine??
biceps femoris m., semitendinosus m.,gracilis m., gastrocnemius m., superficial digital flexor m.
what ligaments are found on the lateral side of the stifle joint of the canine?
lateral collateral lig.
tendon of popliteus
cranial lig. of fibular head
tendon of long digital extensor m.
where is the meniscofemoral ligament's purpose?
attaches the lateral meniscus to the intercondylar fossa of the femur
where would one take blood or palpate for a pulse in the pelvic limb of LA? SA?
LA-dorsal metatarsal artery III-lateral side between MT 3/4
SA- femoral triangle- femoral artery
what are the palpable borders of the femoral triangle?
Iliopsoas m., Pectinius m., sartorius m.
I PEE SLOWLY
how is the stifle joint stabalized?
meniscofemoral ligament- caudal side
medial/lateral collateral ligaments
cranial/caudal cruciate ligaments
tendon of origin of the popliteus m.- lateral side
what structures go through the inguinal canal in the male?
vaginal tunic- covers testis and spermatic cord
external pudental artery, nerve
what is seen with flexor contracture?
the animal looks like it's on it's tippy toes
a animal's heel won't touch the ground
what is seen with flexor laxation?
the tendon is too loose, the foot looks like it's falling to the ground
which hypaxial mm. flex the neck?
**These have NO function in respiration!!**
what structures pass through the inguinal canal in females?
vaginal process- fat
round ligament of the uterus
external pudendal artery and vein
what serves as the entrance to the inguinal canal? exit?
deep inguinal ring=entrance
superficial inguinal ring=exit
name the hip extensors.
superficial, middle, deep gluteals
name the stifle extensors.
sartorius- cranial part
tensor fasciae latae
quiadriceps femoris mm.
name the stifle flexors
biceps femoris-caudal only
semi-M- tibial attachment
sartorius- caudal part
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