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what makes up the pelvic girdle?

2 os coxae- united at the pelvic symphasis and sacrum

at what age does the acetabular bone fuse with the other hip bones?


where does the ligament of the femoral head attach? what's it's purpose?

attaches from the head of femur to the acetabular fossa/ connects the femur to the acetabulum

where does the transverse acetabular ligament attach? purpose?

connect the two sides of the acetabular notch/ appears superficial to the ligament of the femoral head... may blend though

in the equine, what is the extra ligament associated with the coxofemoral joint?

Accessory ligament inserts on the non-articular side of the head of femur

what is the purpose of obturator sulcus?

it's a groove for the obturator nerve- located at the cranial end of the obturator foramen

purpose of iliopubic eminence?

pectineus m. attaches

what composes the prepubic tendon?

tendons of the paired rectus abdominis and pectineus muscles

what attaches to the acetabular fossa?

ligament of the head of the femur

what is the specific area called on the femur where the ligament of the head of the femur inserts?

fovea capitis femoris

what attaches to the greater trochanter of the femur?

middle and deep gluteal mm.

what muscles attach to the trochanteric fossa?

gemelli, external obturator, internal obturator mm.

what muscle attaches to the lesser trochanter?

iliopsoas m.

where does the superficial gluteal m. attach?

third trochanter

where do the vastus parts of the quadriceps femoris attach?

smooth, proximal, cranial border of femur

what part of the femur articulates with the patella?


what is the patella?

sesamoid in the tendon of insertion of the large quadriceps femoris that extends the stifle joint

where are the medial/lateral fabellae found?

in the tendons of origin of the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius m.

where does the gastrocnemius m. arise from?

medial and lateral supracondylar tuberosities

where do the collateral ligaments of the stifle attach?

medial and lateral epicondyles of the femur

what attaches to the lateral epicondyle of the femur?

popliteus m.

what arises from the extensor fossa of the femur?

long digital extensor

what inserts just proximal to the medial epicondyle?

semimembranosus m.

what side of the tibia does the fibula articulate?

lateral- a facet which also provides origin for part of the peroneus longus(fibularis longus) and cranial tibial mm.

what fills the space between the apposed condyles of the femur and tibia?


what attaches to the tibial tuberosity?

quadriceps femoris, biceps femoris, sartorius all attach by means of the patellar ligament and patella

what passes through the extensor groove of the tibia?

long digital extensor

what is the hallux?

the first digit- frequently absent
aka: dewclaw

what animal does not have a sacrotuberous ligament?


what is different about the greater trochanter in the LA?

its split into cranial and caudal parts

what is the purpose of the patella?

redirects the tendon of insertion of the quadriceps
helps protect tendon and joint

what is the significance of the lateral malleolus of the fibula?

contains grooves that redirect the force of contraction of the tendons of the peroneus longus, lateral digital extensor, peroneus brevis

what is different about the bovine tarsal bones?

central and fourth are fused
2 and 3 are fused

what is different about the equine tarsal bones?

1 and 2 are fused

what feature is present only in LA on the metatarsal bones?

metatarsal tuberosity

name the equine metatarsal bones medially to laterally..

metatarsal 2(med) -- metatarsal 3--metatarsal 4(lat)

which bovine metatarsals are fused?

3(medial) and 4(lateral)

what is the most proximal joint of the pelvic limb?

sacroiliac joint

what is the hip joint called?

coxofemoral joint

what joint can we find the lateral and medial menisci?

stifle joint

Superficial gluteal m.

tuber sacrale, 3rd trochanter/extend hip, aBduct limb

middle gluteal m.

greater trochanter, gluteal surface/ extend hip, abduct limb AND rotate Medially (M=middle and medially)

deep gluteal m.

greater trochanter, ischiatic spine/ extend and abduct hip AND rotate medially

internal obturator, external obturator, gemilli, quadratus femoris mm. all function to do what??

rotate limb LATERALLY
antagonists to the middle and deep gluteal mm.

tensor fascia latae m.

tuber coxae, lateral femoral fascia/flex hip, extend stifle, tense lateral femoral fascia

iliopsoas m.

lesser trochanter, lumbar vertebrae/ *MAJOR hip flexor

biceps femoris m.

sacrotuberous lig., ischiatic tuberosity, patella, patellar lig., cranial tibia, tuber calcanei/ extend hip and hock, flex and extend stifle

what muscles make up the common calcanean tendon?

biceps femoris, semi-T, gracilis, gastrocnemius,superficial digital flexor mm.

Semitendinosus m.

ischiatic tuberosity, tibial tuberosity, tuber calcanei/ extend hip and hock, flex stifle

what is different about the horse and pig's semi-T m.?

it has a vertebral head

Semimembranosus m.

ischiatic tuberosity, caudal femur, proximal tibia/ extend hip, flex and extend stifle

what is different about the Semi-M?

has two heads

Gracilis m.

pelvic symphysis, cranial tibia, tuber calcanei/ extend hip and hock, flex stifle, aDduct limb

Adductor m.

floor of pelvis, medial epicondyle of femur/ extends hip, MAJOR adductor of limb

Pectineus m.

caudal femur, pubic tubercle(by prepubic tendon)/ ADduct the limb

Sartorius m.

2 parts- caudal is thinner (only 1 in equine)
tuber coxae, patella, cranial tibia/ flex hip and flex/ extend the stifle

Quadriceps femoris m.

4 heads all fuse distally
All attach to the tibial tuberosity/ extend stifle
rectus femoris attaches to the ilium(flexes hip)

what are the 4 heads of the quadriceps femoris m.?

Rectus femoris- hot dog
vastus lateralis, vastus medialis- bun
vastus intermedias- under the hot dog

cranial tibial m.

extensor groove of tibia, plantar surface of the base of metatarsals I-II
Flexes tarsus, rotates paw laterally

what is different about the cranial tibial m. in the horse?

splits into 2 branches after the peroneus tertius tendon
Dorsal branch inserts on metatarsal tuberosity
Medial branch= Cunean tendon, inserts on fused tarsals 1 and 2

what is the cunean tendon? what's associated with it?

the medial branch of the cranial tibial m. in the equine
Cunean bursa

long digital extensor m.

extensor fossa of femur, extensor process of distal phalanges II-V
flexes tarsus, extends digits

peroneus longus m.

lateral condyle of tibia, tarsal bone 4, plantar part of base of metatarsals
flexes tarsus, Rotates paw medially

what is the antagonist to the peroneus longus m. regarding rotation of the paw?

cranial tibial m. rotates laterally
peroneus longus m. rotates medially

what's different about the peroneus longus m. in the horse?

it is called the peroneus tertius
completely tendinous
divides into 2 branches at the hock- dorsal, lateral

gastrocnemius m.

2 heads
medial and lateral supracondylar tuberosities of femur, tuber calcanei
flex stifle, extend tarsus

superficial digital flexor m.

lateral supracondylar tuberosity of femur, tuber calcanei, bases of midle phalanges of digits II-V
flexes stifle, extends tarsus, flexes first 2 digital joints of 4 main digits

deep digital flexor m.

3 muscles make up: medial and lateral dig. flexors & caudal tibial m.
proximal end of tibia, fibula, plantar surface of base of each distal phalanx
extends tarsus, flexes digits

popliteus m.

lateral condyle of femur, caudal tibia
rotate limb medially

trochanteric bursa

large animal only
lies between the cranial greater trochanter and accessory head of the middle gluteal m.

calcanean bursae (3)

subcutaneous calcanean bursa
intertendinous calcanean bursa
sub tendinous calcanean bursa of the gastrocnemius m.

large animal retinaculums

proximal extensor retinaculum
middle extensor retinaculum
distal extensor retinaculum
lateral extensor retinaculum
flexor retinaculum

small animal retinaculums

crural extensor retinaculum
tarsal extensor retinaculum
flexor retinaculum

what muscles does the proximal extensor retinaculum hold in?

cranial tibial m, long digital extensor m., peroneus tertius m.

what muscles does the middle extensor retinaculum hold in?

forms a loop around the long digital extensor m.

what muscles does the distal extensor retinaculum hold in?

lateral digital extensor m.

what muscles does the lateral extensor retinaculum hold in?

lateral digital extensor m.

what muscles does the flexor retinaculum hold in?

deep digital flexor m.

what muscles does the crural extensor retinaculum hold in?

cranial tibial m., long digital extensor m.

what muscles does the tarsal extensor retinaculum hold in?

long digital extensor m.

what muscles does the flexor retinaculum hold in?

deep digital flexor m.

what pelvic ligament is found in small animal but not large?

sacrotuberous ligament

what pelvic ligament is found in the large animal but not small?

sacrosciatic ligament

what two ligaments are associated with the hip joint?

tranverse acetabular ligament
ligament of the head of the femur

boundaries of the pelvic inlet?

arcuate line and promontory of sacrum

boundaries of the pelvic outlet?

ischiatic arch, first caudal vertebra, superficial gluteal m., muscles of pelvic diaphragm, sacrotuberous ligament

what muscles form the common calcaneal tendon in the canine??

biceps femoris m., semitendinosus m.,gracilis m., gastrocnemius m., superficial digital flexor m.

what muscle is not part of the equine common calcaneal tendon?

gracilis m.

name the patellar ligaments in the equine?

medial, intermediate, lateral

what ligament opposes force of the common calcaneal tendon?

long patellar ligament

name the sesmoidian ligaments


nuchal ligament

axis to T1
cats and pigs do not have

supraspinous ligament

T1-caudal vertabree
continuation of the nuchal ligament

what does the transverse acetabular ligament closely relate with?

the ligament of the femoral head

where are the menisci found?

between each femoral condyle and it'scorresponding tibial condyle

what ligaments are found on the lateral side of the stifle joint of the canine?

lateral collateral lig.
tendon of popliteus
cranial lig. of fibular head
tendon of long digital extensor m.

what ligaments are found on the medial side of the stifle joint canine?

medial collateral lig.

what motion do the collateral ligaments prevent in the stifle?

side to side motion

what motion do the cruciate ligaments prevent in the stifle?

front to back motion

where is the meniscofemoral ligament's purpose?

attaches the lateral meniscus to the intercondylar fossa of the femur

where would one take blood or palpate for a pulse in the pelvic limb of LA? SA?

LA-dorsal metatarsal artery III-lateral side between MT 3/4
SA- femoral triangle- femoral artery

what is the difference between the superficial and deep fascia?


what is the major flexor of the hip? extensor of the hip?

Iliopsoas m./ middle gluteal m.

what are the palpable borders of the femoral triangle?

Iliopsoas m., Pectinius m., sartorius m.

how is the stifle joint stabalized?

meniscofemoral ligament- caudal side
medial/lateral collateral ligaments
cranial/caudal cruciate ligaments
tendon of origin of the popliteus m.- lateral side

what are the anti-gravity muscles in the hind limb?


why is the popliteal surface important clinically?


what structures compose the stay apparatus of the hind limb?


where do ribs articulate?


how/where do the spinal nerves exit the vertebral column?


where would you administer epidural anesthesia?


where would you collect CSF?


what structures make up the inguinal canal?


why do we have an inguinal canal?


what structures go through the inguinal canal in the male?

vaginal tunic- covers testis and spermatic cord
spermatic cord
external pudental artery, nerve
genitofemoral nv.
cremaster muscle

what is the clinical significance to understanding the area of the inguinal canal?


what is seen with flexor contracture?

the animal looks like it's on it's tippy toes
a animal's heel won't touch the ground

what is seen with flexor laxation?

the tendon is too loose, the foot looks like it's falling to the ground

purpose of epaxial mm.?

to extend the spine
3 systems

transverseospinalis system of epaxial mm.?

semispinalis capitis

longissimus system of epaxial mm.?

longissimus thoracis
longissimus cervicis
longissimus capitis

iliocostalis system of epaxial mm.?

iliocostalis lumborum
iliocostalis thoracis

hypaxial muscle function?

flex the spine

hypaxial mm.?

longus capitis
longus colli
serratus ventralis
serratus dorsalis
external intercostals
internal intercostals

which hypaxial mm. flex the neck?

longus capitis
longus colli
**These have NO function in respiration!!**

what passes through the transverse foramina

vertebral artery, vein, and nerve

what is a laminectomy?

removal of part of the vertebral bone known as the lamina

canine vertebral formula?


equine vertebral formula?


bovine vertebral formula?


what is the axis?

the longest vertebrae

what structures pass through the inguinal canal in females?

vaginal process- fat
round ligament of the uterus
external pudendal artery and vein
genitofemoral nerve

what serves as the entrance to the inguinal canal? exit?

deep inguinal ring=entrance
superficial inguinal ring=exit

name the hip extensors.

biceps femoris
superficial, middle, deep gluteals
quadratus femoris

name the stifle extensors.

biceps femoris
sartorius- cranial part
tensor fasciae latae
quiadriceps femoris mm.

name the hock (tarsal) extensors.

biceps femoris

name the limb adductors.


name the lateral rotators

internal obturator
external obturator
quadratus femoris

name the digit extensors

long digital extensor m.

lateral rotators of the paw.

cranial tibial m.

name the hip flexors

tensor fasciae latae
rectus femoris

name the stifle flexors

biceps femoris-caudal only
semi-M- tibial attachment
sartorius- caudal part

name the hock(tarsal) flexors

cranial tibial
long digital extensor
peroneus longus

name the limb abductors.

superficial, middle, deep gluteal mm.

name the medial rotators of the limb.

middle, deep gluteal

name the digital flexors.

peroneus longus
SDF (1st two joints)
DDF( all 3 joints)

what medially rotates the paw?

peroneus longus m.

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