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Dr. Shreeve Exam 1
Terms in this set (42)
What are philosophy's main areas?
What is Metaphysics?
Goes beyond physics
Above matter...Divine things
Looks at causes and investigates principles of reality
What is ethics?
A theory or system of moral principles
Addresses questions of morality
What is Epistemology?
theory of knowledge
Scope or nature of man's knowledge
area of philosophy
deals with the methods, limits and validity of knowledge
seeks to answer: what is the nature of knowledge? it knowledge possible? what are the practical and theoretical limits of knowledge?
the TEST of the truth of a belief or statement
A test used to distinguish truth from error constitutes a standard or measure of verification
criteria of truth
What is logic?
The study or necessary truths and systematic methods for clearly expressing these truths
What is Aesthetics?
The theory of beauty
Process to Practical Application
Who is a critical thinker?
looks at all sides
explores all possibilities for adequacy, cohesion, and reasonableness
explores threatened viewpoints
finds opposing viewpoints if none available from others
Critical thinking and logic
probably the same thing
systematic method for figuring things out
informal logic--confronts attitude, psychological blocks and environment content
formal logic--specificity in language or communication
Argumentation or reasoning
inferring something from two or more propositions
example from isaac watts 1724: matter cannot think, and that the mind of man (does) think, we then infer and conclude, that therefore, the mind of man is not matter.
Inferences and conclusions are the result of reasoning
The ordering of ideas. propositions, and arguments in a fashion to make them most clearly understood and usable
purpose, goal or end view
issue, or problem to be solved
frame of reference (world view and role)
concepts, inferences, implications
results or consequences
Whose Purpose? Point of Reference
Let's buy a car
the same action (sale) has 2 purposes with mutual benefit
Patient has a subluxation
Doctor removes subluxations
Patient recovers from the symptoms
may be simple to win the argument
justify a preconceived idea
What is it?
check to see if you are still on target
choose significant and realistic
Always a question
use logic to figure something out
Example: capital punishment is a topic, not a question(issue) whether to take a philosophy course, is a question (issue)
Example: Tom says, "you should see dr. heagy. she is a an excellent chiropractor."
conclusion: you see Dr. heagy
state reason-- "she is an excellent chiropractor."
Gap between reason and the conclusion assumes that your value of what is an excellent chiropractor is the same as Tom's. What if the patient wants patch care and Dr. Heagy wants to work with them to achieve their optimum potential? Therefore may not be a good doctor for that patient.
Are unstate reasons not conclusions
Remember to: clearly identify assumptions
question are they justifiable
consider how they are influencing you
Frame of reference
rose-colored glasses make everything rosy
Each person's world view can include:
place in history
Frame of reference--individual role
identify your point of view
seek others' views including strengths and weaknesses
evaluate all points equitably
paradigm is a model of reality
a cultural sample
another method of summarizing world view (whose world?)
can be observed directly or indirectly by the senses
important to consider quality, quantity, accuracy, and revelance
Consider the following:
claims restricted to those supported by the data
search for opposing information
keep it clear accurate and relevant to the question at issue
use sufficient sample size
clusters of ideas
do not assume without discussion that all parties have the same definition
example: change or family values
Inferences and implications
implying is to reasoning what speaking is to communicating
inferring is to reasoning what hearing is to communication
speaker implies......listener infers
Results or consequences
reasoning is not static
consider all possible consequences based on the information
if it is true, then what else is true?
if it is false...
Criteria of truth
Not all have equal validity.
Some have no "apparent" value but continue to be used for personal reasons. Others are more useful in judging what is NOT true. Some have strong validity in proper limited areas. There DOES NOT exist one single, universally accepted criterion of truth.
Assumes that doing what is customary will not lead us too far astray
often used in matters involving the determination of moral truth
may also dictate:
considered a "poor" criterion of truth
customs often conflict with and/or contradict each other from one area to another
consists of the notion that what lasts for generations must be valid
nased on the assumptions that the application of principles over time tests the validity of those principles
Also considered a poor criterion of truth:
many traditions repeat what is false
one cultures traditions may conflict with another cultures traditions
Beliefs that lasted the longest must be true
Testing a belief against reality over a period of time is an essential part of the establishment of true principles
The persistence of a belief over time is not by itself adequate
aristotles assertion that a falling object had a definite "natural falling speed" proportional to its weight; therefore heavier objects would fall faster than lighter objects. This stood accepted and unchallenged for 1800 years. It was proven false with one experiment. Galileo's inclined plane experiment found that the speed just kept on increasing, and weight was irrelevant as long as the air friction was negligible
implies dependence upon subjective feelings as a guide to truth
"i have a good feeling about this, therefore it must be true"
Has a number of shortcomings
Different people have different feelings
Are reactions to stimuli
truth can be identified by a pre-programmed reaction
describes universal modes of feelings, reacting to situations
instinct of thirst= drink
instinct of hunger= eat
All instincts have a corresponding object
implies a judgement of truth without recourse to formalized reasoning from identified facts or assumptions
its vlidity is assumed to come from an unknown source within the unconscious mind
considered a poor criterion of truth mainly because it is not dependable, nor necessarily available when needed
seen as more valuable as a source of "new" truths
suggests an impulsive generalization of the truth in response to a specific situation
closely related to "feeling" and "intuition"
this is nearly indistinguisable from "intuition"
the difference is that the source of a revelation is believed to come from God
A revelation accepted on faith is nearly unshakable criterion of PERSONAL truth
truth is found in the opinions held in common by all people -- the unanimous option of mankind
weakness= entire populations have believed erroneous things (the world is flat)
similar to consensus gentium
although it may be a good democtratic procedure, it is not seen as a valid system of determining truth
The indiana legislature voted to make pi equal to 3. This did NOT change the actual ratio between diameter and the circumference of a circle
The opinions of people with training and experience are considered more true than the opinions of people without expertise
this is more useful in the exact sciences than in the arts
Authorities are often:
so narrow in perspective they don't see the big picture
susceptible to rigid thinking patterns that lead to defending dogma rather than pursuing truth
A person accepted as an authority or expert in one field is assumed to be an authority in another field unrelated to their area of expertise
most abused criterion of truth
same limitations as "authority" plus the fundamental invalidity of the idea that authority could be transferred in any way
if an idea works, it must be accepted as true
ideas produce results
examination of the results will either verify or refute the idea
useful criterion but not infallible as not all ideas that produce results are necessarily true
if an idea does NOT produce useful or intended results, it can NOT be true
weakness--all truth must be useful?
the utility of truth may lie beyond out perception or outside our value system
Things are, in reality, as the senses depict them
"seeing is believing"
only that which is subject to sensory perception is verifiable
many truths go beyond the natural or even amplified senses
example: x-rays, chemical reactions, etc.
senses can be misled
example: stick in water appearing bent
An idea or statement that corresponds accurately with the real object to which it refers is necessarily true
its only weakness= how to determine if one's idea of the truth does, in fact, correspond accurately to the obect of that idea
considered a definition of truth, rather than a test of truth
most closely associated with inductive reasoning or the scientific method
the validity of a statement is judged by its relation to other statements of truth
true but not necessarily related statements are said to be loosely consistent of they do not contradict each other
"snow is white", "lead is heavy", and "all politicians are honest"... non contradictory statements but all true?
one proposition follows necessarily from another
if all generals in the US army are soldiers, and if john doe is a general, then john does must be a soldier
if, if, then logic applied to deductive process
limited to those statements that can be related to each other
requires a systemic, consistent explanation of all the facts of existence
whatever facts are revealed must be explainable
considered to be the best criterion of truth as it includes:
its only limitation= man's inability to collect all the facts
the use of COHERENCE to judge the overall integrity of one's knowledge of the truth and CORRESPONDENCE to judge the validity of ones elemental facts, probably produces the most complete test of truth
integral use of these two criteria is considered the bases for formulating a sound theory
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