6 terms

Functional Groups

Review of the formulas, names, and types of some main functional groups.
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Hydroxyl
-OH
(alcohols) polar
found in sugars, alcohols, cell walls, cholesterol
Carbonyl
=CO
(ketones when carbonyl IN skeleton, aldehydes when carbonyl on the END of skeleton) polar
found in ribose, fructose
may be structural isomers
Carboxyl
-COOH
combination of hydroxyl & carbonyl
(carboxylic acids) very polar
found in acetic acid (vinegar), formic acid, lactic acid
Amino
-NH2
(amines) polar
found in glycine, histamines
acts as a base, can accept H+ ions to become NH3+
Sulfhydryl
-SH
(thiols) less polar
found in cysteine
stabilizes tertiary protein structure
Phosphate
O
O -P- O`
O`
(organic phosphates)
found on ATP and GTP
can transfer energy and participate in ionic bonding (2 negative oxygen atoms)
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