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Twenty-fifth Amendment

Legislation that specifies the conditions and order of succession to the presidency and vice presidency when the president leaves office before completion of his term.

White House Office

Presidential staff who oversee the policy interests of the president.

Office of Management and Budget

The organization responsible for preparing the federal budget and for central clearance of legislative proposals from federal agencies.

impoundment of funds

A presidential refusal to spend money appropriated by Congress.

line-item veto

The power of some governors (and the president in a limited way between 1996 and 1998) to veto portions of a bill instead of having to veto the entire bill.

electoral college

A legal system by which states select electors who then vote for the president and vice president.

Article II

A statement that defines the constitutional powers of the president.

divided government

A government in which one party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress.

lame duck

A politician who is still in office after having lost a reelection bid.

pocket veto

A form of veto in which the president fails to sign a bill passed by both houses within ten days and Congress has adjourned during that time

iron triangle

The relationship among an agency, a committee, and an interest group

red tape

Complex bureaucratic rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done

incorporation doctrine

Applies the Bill of Rights to state and local governments by virtue of the due process clause of the 14th Amendment. Many rights have been applied selectively or one at a time through Supreme Court cases

Executive Order

Issued by Presidents to guide the agencies of the executive branch. Have the force of law. Often controversial for bypassing Congress. Limited in possible use.

Congressional Budget Office

Federal agency within the legislative branch that provides economic data to Congress. Was created as a nonpartisan agency by the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act 1974

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