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Gravity
Terms in this set (154)
atomic number vs atomic mass vs mass number
atomic number= number of protons
atomic mass= total mass, the same as mass number
When given the wavelength of a photon, its frequency can be found by
v=lambda*frequency
c=speed of light
3x10^8 / lambda = frequency
Destructive interference occurs when the waves differ in phase by :
Constructive interference occurs when the waves are in phase by:
180*, or half a wave (half a circle) difference
by 0 or 360, (a full circle)
To find a frequency difference, simply
subtract the two waves' frequencies
The harmonic with the smallest __________ will have the shortest period
wavelength
remember period is the time from crest to crest, not how many crests pass a point in a given second
Displacement is at its maximal at the ________ of a standing wave
Displacement is at its minimal at the ________ of a standing wave
antinode (highest point of a crest)
node (where there is no displacement at all)
The fundamental harmonic equation for frequency=
for wavelength=
fn= nv/2L
lambda= 2L/n
If the first harmonic is 100Hz, what will the second harmonic be? For open end harmonics
200Hz
frequency as it relates to period
F=1/T
Increasing harmonics does what to the period and frequency?
Decreases the period
T=1/f
so f increases
A period can be viewed as _____ to _____, 180
apart or ______ to ____ 180
apart
node to node
antinode to antinode
compare the frequency of sound to radio waves
sound has a much lower frequency, lower wavelength
radio is on the em scale, thus has tiny wavelengths and thus higher frequencies
when relating changes in frequencies and wavelengths due to moving sources, the percent changes of sound waves will much higher
remember that velocity of waves depends only on the medium it propagates in, thus sound is lower in v
No relative shift in motion will mean that frequency detected will be
the same as the frequency of the source
A smaller wavelength indicates that the source is moving away/towards the detector,
how about smaller frequency?
smaller wavelength will mean the source is moving towards
a smaller frequency, or less cycles per second, means the source is moving away from you
Archimedes principle equation
density of fluid
volume of object submerged
gravity
Gauge pressure equation
these variables vary
Pg= density of fluid
depth
gravity
proportionally, linearly
so increase depth from 5 to 10 and pressure increases from 200 to 400
if its from 250 to 450, then the 50 was there to start at the zero pressure, so you need to account for that
Theta incident ray =
theta reflected ray
snell's law
n
sin(theta) = n
sin(theta)
Whenever the index of refraction increases from one medium to another, the ray of light will bend __________ the normal
towards
To decrease the electric field of a capacitor, one can
increase the distance
From a resistor to a capacitor in series, the change in V is
the same as the change in V for resistor to resistor in series
eV is basically
Joules for an electron
In the photoelectric effect, increasing the number of photons hitting the metal plates leads to
what if we increase the frequency of the photon?
an increase in electrons ejected, since it is a quantized/discrete amount
Then electrons will be released at a higher speed
KE e- = hf - workfunction
E+ of photon= hf
Anode is +/- and Cathode is +/-
Anode is + and Cathode is -
FOR an ELECTROLYTIC cell
this is because they are forced in the other direction
Anode is - and Cathode is +
FOR a GALVANIC cell
If the velocity of a particle increases as it goes through an electric field, what will happen to the electric force acting on it?
If the velocity of a particle increases as it goes through a MAGNETIC field, what will happen to the force acting on it?
stays the same, electric force depends only on the charges and the distance between the charges
it will increase, since Fmag= q
v
B*sintheta, where theta has to be less than 180, preferably 90, so that sin90=1
One can increase the capacitance of a capacitor by
adding a dielectric,
decreasing the distance between plates
increasing the surface area of the plates
Capacitance= A/d
entirely physical atributes
How do you calculate the charge stored in a capacitor?
Q=CV
if asked to find the capacitance C=Q/V, but these are not related to the ability of the capacitor
another capacitor added in series will yield what change to the overall capacitance?
it will be 1/2
since capacitors = 1/ctot = 1/c + 1/c
1/ctot= 2/c
ctot = c/2, or 1/2 of the orginal
When an electron is moving towards a positive source, it accelerates, how can you prove this with an equation?
F=ma=qE
so, the force is dependent on the electric field, which is pulling the q, thus the q is accelerating
In ossiclating springs, where is the PE at its maximum? where is KE at its maximum?
PE is at its greatest at the point of maximal displacement/ stretch/ shrink
KE is at its greatest as it passes the "resting point"
PE of an oscillating particle, whether its a spring or longitudinal wave is equal to
PE= 1/2 Kx^2
log of 100000 is
5
12=log(x/10^-12)
x=10^0
What is the magnitude of the frequency shift of a projectile with a radio that is thrown up, reaches its peaks and comes down again
it is negative as it moves away, reaches zero and then increases as it comes towards you
frequency shift is just the change in frequency
The focal length of a mirror/lens depends only on the
radius of curvature, since focal length=1/r
To keep the current released from a capacitor(=1/2QV) constant, the resistance of the resistor must
gradually decrease
V=IR
keep I constant, then R has to to change to regulate the V, which is constant
capacitance vs energy on a capacitor
capacitance, C=Q/V= A/d, is in Farads
energy on a capacitor, C=1/2QV, which is in joules
An object is moving at a constant speed. A rope with angle theta is pulling the object while friction is acting on it, what is magnitude of the frictional force?
Since there is no acceleration, the sum of the forces is ZERO,
so, Ffriction= Tcos(theta)
The intensity level of sound b is 20dB greater than sound a, what is the difference in intensity?
20dB=10 log (Intensity compared to human hearing(/10^-12)
so, log x=2
x=10^2, so the difference is 100x
square root of 2
1.41
Transition metals, d orbital elements, are special in that, when they react with other elements they
emit color, for example, ni turns blue, Fe turns red
Atomic radii increase on the periodic table from _____ to ______ and from ______ to _____
right to left and from top to bottom
Groups of the periodic table
Strong acids
HI
HCl
HBr
HClO4
HClO3
HNO3
H2SO4
A buffer can be with
a weak acid and its conjugate base
NaNO2 dissociates, why does it create a basic solution?
NO2- is a conjugate base of a weak acid that will react with H2O to form OH-
When Ca is turned to its ion, what will be its electron configuration?
Like that of the noble gas before it, Ar
2 samples with the same mass are ionized to produce a gas, compound 1 has a higher molecular weight, in comparison to to compound 2, how will its volume fluctuate with changing temp?
increase temp means increase volume for all gases, regardless of size
however! compound 1 has a higher molecular weight, but yet we still have the same mass, so there has to be less moles of compound 1 than compound 2, so compound 1 will see a smaller change in volume
what is the geometry of AlF6 3-?
octahedral
What occurs at the cathode and anode of both electrolytic cells and galvanic cells?
RED CAT
AN OX
so reduction will occur at the cathode, ALWAYS
oxidation will occur at the anode, ALWAYS
In thin layer chromatography, what acts as the mobile phase and the stationary phase, the polar and the non-polar?
Silica plates are the stationary POLAR phase
The solvent is the mobile NON-Polar phase
When given three amino acids, how many possible tri-peptides are possible
3x2x1= 6
3!
How many liters are 1 mole of ideal gas at STP
22.4
The molar solubility of a substance is Smol/L, its ksp=[A-][H]^2, what is the ksp value?
ksp= [S][2S]^2
ksp=4S^3
Avogadro's number
6x10^23
Electronegativity trends on PT
FONClBrISCH
Isomerization
When functional groups in a compound move around, like in tautomerism
Why is the concentration of H2O usually omitted from the equilibrium constant expression?
It is the solvent, typically solvents are not included since their concentration does not vary much during the reaction
Electron affinity vs electronegativity vs ionization potential
electron affinity is the amount of energy used to add an electron to an atom
electronegativity is the ability for some element to draw electrons
ionization potential is the energy absorbed to remove an electron
Ionization constant is really just the
dissociation constant
weak acids, like H2S, have an ionization constant that is _____ zero
near
Increasing the frequency of the incident photon in the photoelectric effect will have what ultimate effect?
It will increase the KE of the electron ejected
KE= hf - workfunction
What effect does increasing the speed of charged particle through an electric field have on the force?
none, a changing v is only important when calculating magnetic force
What is the equation for the acceleration of particle through an electric field?
Force= E*q
ma=E*q
a= E*q/m
Describe alpha, beta and gamma decay
Beta minus, you add a proton
Beta plus, you subtract a proton
alpha you subtract two protons
gamma doesnt affect it
density of water
1x10^3 kg/m3
In relating densities, if a ball is floating in water, has does the ratio of densities relate to the amount of ball submerged?
density ball/ density of water, tells us how much of the ball is SUBMERGED
if we want to know how much is floating above the surface, 1 - ratio= amount above
Within the same medium, the _____ of sound is constant, when traveling through a new medium, the ______ of the sound is constant
speed; frequency
fulcrum
is a seesaw essentially
Work=
f
d
cos theta
How will work change when increasing the angle of a ramp in relation to horizontal, where friction is present.
Work will decrease, since less is needed to overcome the decreasing friction force,
friction force= u*normal force,
increasing the angle lessens the normal force, thus decreasing the friction force
volume flow rate=
velocity * cross-sectional area
After a block began sliding, how did its velocity vary with time?
increased at a constant acceleration
Why is sound heard less intensely if the sound is separated by a wall?
the sound waves interact with the medium, reflecting part of the sound off the wall, but it actually travels fastest through solid medium, frequency will not change
wavelength increase though, since speed is increasing
fusion is
melting
By what factor would the T increase in order to increase the fundamental frequency by 2/3?
f=T^1/2
3/2*f= 3/2(T)^1/2
3/2^2= 9/4
3/2f= (9/4T)^1/2
a wavelength of 450nm is emitted, what is its energy?
(3x10^8m/s) / (4.5x10^-7m)= 6.6x10^14Hz
6.6x10^14Hz * h = 4.4x10^-19
1/2(v)^2=
3/2(T)^1/2
to get one half under the exponent, square root it
to get 3/2 under the square root, square it
The spacing of nodes can always be related to lambda by
lambda/2
its at the half wavelength mark
R=
resistivity * L/cross-sectional A
Converging lens yield ______ and _____ images
diverging lens yield ______ and ______
inverted and real
upright and virtual
Stereospecificity is not indicated in a reaction if the products
are mixed
What type of functional group is formed when aspartic acid reacts with another amino acid to form a peptide bond
amide
A hydride shift will occur to stabilize a
carboanion
If a solution contains 4 different compounds, each of different molecular weights and bonding abilities, which compound will yield the first peak in a gas chromotagraph?
the one of the lowest molecular weight and least ability to intermoleculary bind to the stationary phase
When labeling atoms on compounds containing OH and COOH, which atom will be the best to label in order to determine movement of the atoms FROM the reaction?
Since H's easily exchange prior to reaction, that is usually bad choice of labeling, the O of the OH or the COOH, particularly of the OH, would be better choices.
1/1 + 1/0.02 = 1/f
whats the strength of the lens?
1+ 50 = Strength
1/(2x10^-2)= 5x10^1= 50
Enzymes work to lower Ea by stabilizing the _________ ______
transition state
Index of refraction will always be ____ than 1
greater than 1, unless its a vacuum, then it'll be 1
c/v
3x10^8/v > 1
Intensity of light =
(Power= energy/ time) / area
increase in photons per unit time= greater intensity
Kilo, Mega, Giga, Tera
Always be on the lookout for UNITS!!!!
Tera=10^12
1 atm = ______mmHg
760
Di-sulfide bonds are broken in ______ environments
reductive
Velocity is lowest at which point in the circulatory system?
The capillaries, because of the shear total cross sectional area
An octahedral compound has how many sigma bonds? What is the carbon's hybridization state?
6 sigma bonds, thus 6 orbital states are required
d2sp3
A pH change of 3 units indicates a ____ fold increase [H]
1000
SDS PAGE
Glycogen synthase produces _______ glycosidic bonds
alpha-1,4
reactivity series tells us?
the most electropositive elements, which ones will be readily oxidized
If Al solid is a beaker and Zn/Zn2+ is in another, forming a galvanic cell, what will most likely occur?
Since aluminum is more electropositive than zinc, it will be readily oxidized, and become the anode. When this occurs, Al+ will form
An Ox
Red Cat
The more positive a reduction potential
the more spontaneous the reaction will be
for example, Al has a large negative red value, which makes sense since it would rather be reduced
Copper on the other hand has a large reduction value, which means it would be reduced well, thus make a good cathode
Pb is at the anode and Cu is at the cathode, will ox/red be spontaneous?
Of course! Pb has a negative reduction potential, so reverse that to get the oxidation potential. Cu has a positive reduction potential, so itll make a good cathode
Add up the two and you get a positive Ecell potential! Thus, a spontaneous reaction.
Acceleration units
m/s^2
quinone
Increasing conjugation yields _____ in the absorption in spectroscopy
increase
Name the phosphates in ATP
alpha, beta, gamma
describe the venturi effect
Tube narrows and linear speed increases at point 2 so pressure decreases causing lower column at pt 2.
pgh is constant at both points
forces static air to move
vapor pressure
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate.
relative vapor pressure can be determined by knowing boiling point
lewis base
bronsted base
donates electrons
accepts protons
lewis acid
bronsted acid
accepts electrons
donates protons
which compounds form coordinate covalent bonds?
A METAL ION and a lewis base(ready to give up protons)
coordination number
the number of bonds a central atom has
A large ionization energy means
the element is not willing to give up its electrons (has a full octet)
A small ionization energy, or even a negative ionization energy, means
the element will willingly give up one of its electrons
like Ca's second ionization energy Ca+ ->Ca2+
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
pH= pKa + log[A-]/[HA]
When considering Ksp's one can only take the concentrations of the ______ into consideration
products, since the reactants are often liquids or solids
diastolic, systolic
systolic is higher than dystolic
Check definition for question
2 moles of nitroglycerin yield 6CO2, 5H2O
the heat of formation of each:
nitroglycerin= -364
CO2= -400
H2O= -250
what is the heat of formation of CO2 and H20 from the 2 moles of nitroglycerin?
Hess's law
4/6= 1/x , x=3/2 or 1.5
check definition
potential energy for spring formula
1/2kx^2
A converging lens can produce a _____, ____,____image. A diverging lens can produce a _____, ____, _____image.
A converging lens can produce a real, inverted and enlarged image. A diverging lens can produce a virtual, upright and reduced image.
Small amides are hydrophillic since they can....
larger amides are _________
h-bond
hydrophobic
aldol
What is the unit for capacitance?
Farad
Formula for Capacitance, formula for energy in a capacitor
C=Q/V= E A/d
PE=1/2QV = 1/2CV^2
Power=
=force*velocity
=work/time
When acceleration and force decrease in a linear proportional fashion, speed will decrease _______ in relation to time
exponentially
When radioactively labeling hydrogen, the best C-H
or N-H bonds to label are those that
are least acidic!
Kw/Ka=
Kb
this applies to the end product, so Kb for HCO3-is the Kw/Ka for H2CO3, the conjugate acid of HCO3-
Activation energy is equal to
the energy of the activated complex minus the energy of the reactants
The two atoms which have oddly filled orbitals are transition metals
Chromium and copper
order of filling orbitals
s=2 electrons
p= 6 electrons
d=10 electrons
The period of a cycle is the time it takes to
get from crest to crest, troph to troph or a crest and troph
uniform electric field
How to lower the acidity of a buffer
add more acid, increase the consumption the base
peptide bond breaking is a ______ reaction that uses a _______ not a lyase
hydrolysis; hydrolase
What conditions are necessary in order to measure the Michaelis Menton variables, Km and Vmax
the Vo
constant pH
[enzyme] < [substrate]
When acetylating an hydroxylamine, what is the result?
acetylation
adding an acetyl group
When pH is given, how do you calculate the hydroxide concentration?
pH+ pOH= 14
if highest pH is 10 then pOH is 4= [10^-4]
Coordinate covalent bonds occur between
a metal cation and lewis base(like amino acids with negative charges, ie Asp, Ser) or even the carboxyl backbone of the peptide bonds
the O acts as the lewis base, donating electrons to the metal cation
backbone of peptide bond h-bonding to form secondary structure
porphryin ring
Joined pyrole rings
Resistivity is the inverse of
conductivity
they're reciprocals of one another
A transferase
transfers a functional group
cytosine to 5-hydroxylcytosine
deltaGknot=
-RTlnK
K= product/reactant
A low pK means that
the compound will be readily deprotonated
pKa lower than pH= deprotonation
Ionization periodic table trend
F has the highest (takes the most energy to take an electron from it)
Goes from left to right because of increasing nuclear force from increasing atomic number
goes from bottom to top because there is less shielding due to the decreased radius of the atoms
The one property of a wave that remains unchanged as it passes through a new medium
frequency
check definition
This is because Av=nav
so Av/na=v
This the continuity equation
where the volume flow rate has to be the same, so you can equate the two
Alkali group
alkaline group
metalloids
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