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51 terms

Introducing Hardware (Ch. 1)

STUDY
PLAY
software
the set of instructions that directs the hardware to accomplish a task
hardware
a computer's physical components (monitor, keyboard, memory chips, etc.)
binary number system
the number system that only uses the digits 0 and 1
bit
a 1 or 0 in the binary number system
byte
a group of 8 bits
CPU
central processing unit, processor, or microprocessor (the brain)
port
where cables or a wireless connection connects to the case
keyboard
the primary input device of a computer
monitor
the visual device that displays the primary output of the computer
printer
produces output on paper
hard copy
the "output on paper"
circuit board
a board that holds microchips and the circuitry that connects these chips
expansion cards
a type of circuit board
expansion slots
where expansion cards are installed on the motherboard
CMOS
(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) microchips that require less electricity and produce less heat than previous versions of microchips
motherboard
(main board or system board) the largest and most important circuit board in the computer
peripheral device
a device that is not installed directly on the motherboard
parallel port
transmits data in parallel and is most often used by a printer
S/PDIF sound port
(Sony-Philips Digital Interface) connects to an external home theater audio system, providing digital output and the best signal quality
USB
(universal serial bus) a slot that can be used by many different input/output devices
Ex: keyboards, mice, printers, scanners, etc.
primary storage
(memory) temporarily holds data and instructions while it is processing them
secondary storage
permanent storage
Ex: hard drive, CD, floppy disk, etc.
RAM
(random access memory) primary storage is provided by this device
DIMM
(dual inline memory module) one of the three general types of modules, the most common type
RIMM
designed by Rambus Inc.
SIMM
(single inline memory module) an older outdated module
volatile
a kind of memory that is only temporary
nonvolatile
a kind of memory that is permanent;
ROM
(read-only memory) a kind of nonvolatile memory
data path size
the width of a data bus
FSB
(front side bus) A.K.A. system bus, memory bus, host bus, local bus, or external bus
clock speed
a device works on a clock cycle or beat of the clock, these beats are called the clock speed
Hz
(hertz) one cycle per second
MHz
(megahertz) one million cycles per second
GHz
(gigahertz) one billion cycles per second
BIOS
(basic input/output system) basic instructions that are stored on special ROM chips on the board
program
a software file
system BIOS
the BIOS used to manage simple devices
startup BIOS
the BIOS used to start the computer
CMOS setup
the BIOS that is used to change some settings on the motherboard
CMOS RAM
motherboard settings are stored in a small amount of RAM located on the firmware chip
flash ROM
the software stored on chips that can be overwritten by new software
ACPI
(advanced configuration and power interface) a power-saving feature using standards developed by Intel, Microsoft, and Toshiba
APM
(advanced power management) an older BIOS power management standard
PnP
(plug and play) a standard designed to make the installation of new hardware devices easier
serial port
transmits data serially, one bit follows the next
hard drive
a sealed case containing platters or disks that rotate at a high speed
protocol
a set of rules and standards that any tow entities use for communication
data bus
the parts of a the bus that we are most familiar with are the lines of the bus that are used for data
system clock
a system timer which is dedicated to timing the activities of the chips on the motherboard
power supply
the most important component of the computer's electrical system