the set of instructions that directs the hardware to accomplish a task
a computer's physical components (monitor, keyboard, memory chips, etc.)
binary number system
the number system that only uses the digits 0 and 1
a 1 or 0 in the binary number system
central processing unit, processor, or microprocessor (the brain)
where cables or a wireless connection connects to the case
the primary input device of a computer
the visual device that displays the primary output of the computer
produces output on paper
the "output on paper"
a board that holds microchips and the circuitry that connects these chips
a type of circuit board
where expansion cards are installed on the motherboard
(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) microchips that require less electricity and produce less heat than previous versions of microchips
(main board or system board) the largest and most important circuit board in the computer
a device that is not installed directly on the motherboard
transmits data in parallel and is most often used by a printer
S/PDIF sound port
(Sony-Philips Digital Interface) connects to an external home theater audio system, providing digital output and the best signal quality
(universal serial bus) a slot that can be used by many different input/output devices
Ex: keyboards, mice, printers, scanners, etc.
(memory) temporarily holds data and instructions while it is processing them
Ex: hard drive, CD, floppy disk, etc.
(random access memory) primary storage is provided by this device
(dual inline memory module) one of the three general types of modules, the most common type
designed by Rambus Inc.
(single inline memory module) an older outdated module
a kind of memory that is only temporary
a kind of memory that is permanent;
(read-only memory) a kind of nonvolatile memory
data path size
the width of a data bus
(front side bus) A.K.A. system bus, memory bus, host bus, local bus, or external bus
a device works on a clock cycle or beat of the clock, these beats are called the clock speed
(hertz) one cycle per second
(megahertz) one million cycles per second
(gigahertz) one billion cycles per second
(basic input/output system) basic instructions that are stored on special ROM chips on the board
the BIOS used to manage simple devices
the BIOS used to start the computer
the BIOS that is used to change some settings on the motherboard
motherboard settings are stored in a small amount of RAM located on the firmware chip
the software stored on chips that can be overwritten by new software
(advanced configuration and power interface) a power-saving feature using standards developed by Intel, Microsoft, and Toshiba
(advanced power management) an older BIOS power management standard
(plug and play) a standard designed to make the installation of new hardware devices easier
transmits data serially, one bit follows the next
a sealed case containing platters or disks that rotate at a high speed
a set of rules and standards that any tow entities use for communication
the parts of a the bus that we are most familiar with are the lines of the bus that are used for data
a system timer which is dedicated to timing the activities of the chips on the motherboard
the most important component of the computer's electrical system
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