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Terms in this set (80)
You and your partner respond to the residence of a 66-year old male with shortness of breath. As you are assessing the patient, his wife tells you that he was recently diagnosed with lung cancer. The patient is verbally abusive and tells you that failure of the health care system caused his disease. What stage of the grieving process is this patient's behavior consistent with?
What helps minimize gastric distention when using a bag valve mask device?
- ensuring that the patient's airway is appropriately positioned
- ventilating the patient at the appropriate rate
- ventilating the patient at the appropriate volume
What biological agents or diseases can NOT be transmitted to a person?
Why would you transport someone in a position of comfort?
to not cause any unnecessary pain
What is considered gaining simple access to a patient?
entering a vehicle through an open windw
A 16-year old female complains of vaginal bleeding and abdominal cramping. How would you perform your assessment interview?
inquire about the possibility of pregnancy in private, if possible
What are the vital signs seen in Crushing's triad? What do they represent?
-increased BP, irregular respiration, bradycardia
- increasing intracranial pressure, leading to brainstem herniation
When would you use an occlusive dressing and why?
-seal wound off from infection, keep hydrated
- sucking chest wounds
- applies pressure and controls bleeding
Why would a flow-restricted, oxygen powered ventilation device be used? What are the contraindications for the device?
- produces positive pressure
- NOT for COPD, emphysema, any weakened lungs (pneumothorax potential)
- need constant supply of oxygen
How would you control a suspected arterial bleed?
direct pressure, pressure dressing, tourniquet if needed
What factors are NOT considered when assessing a fallen patient? What is considered a significant fall?
the speed of the fall
- adult > 20 feet, Children > 10 feet, or 2-3x pt. height
What are the criteria for each category of START and JumpStart Triage?
Black (probably going to die), red (helped by immediate intervention, compromises to ABCs), Yellow (serious and potentially life-threatening, not going to deteriorate), green (walking wounded)
What additional considerations are made when immobilizing a patient with a kyphotic spine to a longboard?
place blankets behind the patient's head
What additional resources should be considered for a potential domestic assault?
Due to the high risk of an unstable work environment, EMTs responding to a motor vehicle crash may consider using ________ in addition to standard PPE.
What are the different types of consent?
- involuntary consent (combative, mental health)
- informed consent
- implied consent
- expressed consent
What immobilization devices are indicated for patients in a sitting position that are clinically stable?
-KED (vest-style immobilization)
What are the common side effects of nitroglycerin?
headache, bradycardia, BP lowers, flushing of skin, lightheadedness, cardiovascular collapse
The LEAST harmful form of ionizing radiation is:
What motor vehicle collisions have a greatest change of multiple impacts?
rotational and rollover
What is your first step in taking over bystander CPR?
stop CPR so you can assess pulse and breathing
The steps in administering epinephrine by auto-injector include:
holding the injector in place until all the medication has been injected
What method of oxygen is used for a conscious, alert patient speaking in complete sentences?
administer 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask
Which of the following is NOT a common role of an EMT at a HazMat incident?
Your unit and a fire department vehicle are responding to the scene of a patient in cardiac arrest. As you approach an intersection that is highly congested, you should:
use a different siren tone than the fire department vehicle
What are the steps for using a tourniquet, when should it be removed?
- always use a bandage 4 inches or greater; never use a belt, wire, or any other material that may cut the soft tissue
- once applied, secure tourniquet tightly. don't remove or loosen unless directed to do so.
- apply a tourniquet as close to injury as possible, but never apply directly over any joint or the wound itself
- always make sure the tourniquet is in open view
- document time of application on piece of tap and affix to tourniquet
- tightness needed for tourniquet on a leg is typically greater than that for an arm
What are NOT the signs of a sudden severe airway obstruction?
After treating a patient for shock you should?
transport to the hospital immediately, closely monitor and reassess the pt
When using an occlusive dressing what signs would indicate the need to partially remove the dressing?
Increasing shortness of breath, decrease in ventilatory volume, and an increase in thoracic diameter
When attempts to use a portable radio fail, what is your next step?
use the mobile radio in the ambulance to contact dispatch
What is NOT an early sign of respiratory distress in a pediatric patient?
Which of the following findings does NOT indicate the patient's potential for violence?
large physical body size
What signs and symptoms might indicate nerve agent exposure?
salivation, pinpoint pupils, and diarrhea
What steps are taken for a suspected febrile seizure?
supportive care and transport
When using the AED what steps are taken when a medication patch is involved?
remove the patch and attach it to the AED so everyone sees it, wipe the area
While documenting a call, you add a false statement that was made about a local doctor. This could constitute which of the following?
At a MCI where incident command is established you report to whom on scene?
incident commander and wait for assignment
What are appropriate demonstrations of professionalism?
continue to be nonjudgmental, compassionate, and respectful
When reviewing patient care reports you must remove what information to avoid violating HIPAA?
When would a continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP) device be used?
62-year-old man with severe respiratory distress, a history of congestive heart failure, and audible rhonchi in the lungs
How and when do you determine an Apgar score?
At birth and again at 5 minutes
(0 - white/blue)
(1 - pink body, blue extremities)
(2 - pink)
- heart rate
(0 - absent)
(1 - < 100)
(2 - > 100)
(0 - absent)
(1 - grimace)
(2 - cry)
(0 - limp)
(1 - some limb flexion)
(2 - active movements)
(0 - none)
(1 - slow)
(2 - strong cry)
As you assess a patient's circulatory status your partner should be directed to?
vital signs/administer oxygen
Define the types of listening when talking to a patient
1. rephrase a question. check to see if the patient's interpretation of a message is correct
2. listen for feelings
3. being observant while listening
4. being patient and listening completely
What are the signs of inadequate breathing?
The reduction of oxygen to the point where oxygen intake is not sufficient to support life.
1. rate is too fast or too slow
2. irregular rhythm
3. chest expansion too shallow
4. quality too low
5. pale skin
What are the signs and symptoms of shock?
- cool, clammy skin
- pale or ashen skin
- rapid pulse
- rapid breathing
- nausea or vomiting
- enlarged pupils
- weakness or fatigue
- dizziness or fainting
Hyperventilation could be associated with all of the following, EXCEPT:
a narcotic overdose
What is the difference between ventilation and respiration?
respiration: the automatic process that allows for oxygen to be gained into red blood cells through diffusion via either passive or active transport ventilation: the physical movement of pulling/pushing air through the body
List the signs and symptoms of all heat and cold emergencies.
see google docs
How is the rule of nines used to determine body surface area percentage?
head/neck = 9, trunk = 18, arm = 9, genitalia = 1, leg = 18
How should you treat an eye injury?
the eyes should be flushed from the inside corner to the outside edge for at least 20 minutes
You arrive at the scene of a major motor vehicle crash. The patient, a 50-year-old female, was removed from her vehicle prior to your arrival. Bystanders who removed her state that she was not wearing a seatbelt. The patient is unresponsive, tachycardic, and diaphoretic. Your assessment reveals bilaterally clear and equal breath sounds, a midline trachea, and collapsed jugular veins. You should be MOST suspicious that this patient has experienced a:
laceration of the aorta
All the following would be considered "significant" mechanisms of injury except:
fall from a standing position, less than 6 feet
Which of the following statements regarding an emergency patient move is correct?
performed before the primary assessment and treatment
What is the first thing done for a patient found in a prone position?
log roll to a supine position with head stabilization
You respond to a college campus for a young male who is acting strangely. After law enforcement has secured the scene, you enter the patient's dorm room and find him sitting on the edge of the bed; he appears agitated. As you approach him, you note that he has dried blood around both nostrils. He is breathing adequately, his pulse is rapid and irregular, and his blood pressure is 200/110 mm Hg. Treatment for this patient includes:
attempt to calm him and give him oxygen if tolerated
List the steps of patient assessment including all possible interventions required for the
following: Medical Assessment, Trauma with a significant MOI, Trauma with a non-significant MOI
What is Peritonitis and when is it caused?
- irritation of the peritoneum
- usually caused by foreign material in peritoneal space
What is the objective of traffic control?
warn oncoming traffic and prevent another crash
Define the different modes of transmission for bloodborne pathogens.
bloodborne = microorganism in blood, direct/indirect/airborne, food borne, vector borne
What do you have to do when removing a critically injured patient from a car?
protect the cervical spine during the entire process
What are the signs and symptoms of DTs (Delirium Tremens)?
- agitation or restlessness
Treatment for nosebleed.
-place patient in sitting position
- have patient lean forward
- apply direct pressure by pinching the fleshy portion of the nostrils together
Know signs and symptoms of exposure to phosgene or chlorine?
When multiple patients present with an acute onset of difficulty breathing, chest tightness, and hoarseness or stridor,
What is the proper treatment for a patient experiencing shock?
- lay the patient supine
- keep them warm
- give oxygen
You are dispatched to a residence for a child with respiratory distress. The patient, an 18 month old female, is tachypneic, has sternal retractions, and is clinging to her mother. Her skin is pink and dry, and her heart rate is 120 beats/min. The MOST appropriate treatment for this child includes:
Administering blow-by oxygen and transporting the child with her mother
Signs and symptoms of Preeclampsia include?
Headache and edema
Common signs and symptoms of a chest injury include all of the following except:
Important questions to ask about a poisonous substance ingestion
Expected injuries of a child in the front seat with airbag deployment?
head, spine, eye, facial, arm
Common signs and symptoms of a diabetic ketoacidosis or coma include all of the following expect
cool, clammy skin
Signs of an upper airway obstruction in an infant or child include all of the following, EXCEPT:
Treatment for Pt. that is semiconscious and has slow, shallow respirations
BVM on 15 l/m
Know what happens when blood volume is lost from the body
the arteries contract to increase the blood pressure
Signs and symptoms of a sympathomimetic drug overdose include:
What are the components & flow of the primary assessment for the pediatric patient?
-Form a general impression using the Pediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT)
-Assess the level of consciousness (AVPU)
-Airway assessment (peds adjunct)
What is the PAT and how is it used?
- it is used during the appearance evaluation of a
- work of breathing
What is GEMS and how is it used?
- issues to be considered when assessing an older patient
-E - Environment
-M - medical assessment
-S - social network
What is the best way to transport a patient who is pregnant?
On her left side
When is the best time to use a bulky dressing?
to stabilize a flail chest
What actions should be taken if the scene becomes unsafe after patient contact has been made?
remove yourself from the scene
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