47 terms

chapter 9 psych

spacing effect
tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
absent mindedness
inattention of details produces encoding failure (mind is elsewhere)
storage decay overtime
inaccessibility of stored info
confusing source of info
imagering effects of misinformation
belief-colored recollections
unwanted memories (haunted images of sexual assault)
improving memory
-study repeatedly to boost long-term recall
-more time rehearsing
-material personality meaningful
-mnemonic devices
-refresh by retrieval cues
-recall events
-minimize interference
Sigmund Froid
found subconscious, believed all people are sexual animals
process of getting info out of memory storage
retention of encoded info over time
short-term memory
activated memory holds a few items briefly
long term memory
relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory system
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned info (word meaning)
sensory memory
immediate initial recording of sensory info in memory system
processing of info into memory system (extracting meaning)
flashbulb memory
clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
persistence of learning overtime through the storage and retrieval information
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading info into one's memory of an event
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source of an event that they have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection. also called procedural memory
mood-congruent memory
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
retroactive interference
disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old info
in psychoanalytic theory, basis defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
proactive interference
disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information
example of memory construction
when people who saw film of a car accident and were asked a leading question they recalled a more accident than they had witnessed
serial position effect
tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
visual encoding
encoding of picture images
acoustic encoding
encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
mental pics; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few 10ths of a second
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere sounds and words can still be recalled with in 3 or 4 seconds
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
loss of memory
long-term potentiation (LTP)
increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation, believed to be a neutral basis for learning and memory
deja vu
eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
activation, often unconsciously of particular associations in memory
memory measure assesses amount of time saved when learning material again
measure of memory in which person need only identify items previously learned (multiple choice tests)
conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
neural center located in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
a measure of memory when person must retrieve information learned earlier (fill in the blank)
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort (doing this)