Political Parties, Policy Agenda, Policy Agenda, Congress, Congress
___ ____ organize government and seek to pass a ____ ____. Success in enacting this ___ ____ depends on whether the president's party controls _____ and whether the leadership of the majority party in _____ is effective in persuading its colleagues to support its agenda.
In the 1980s and the 1990s, about _____ percent of the electorate identified themselves as strong partisans.
A _____ is a party organization that once maintained power and control over goernment offices using nominations, patronage, bribery, and vote-buying.
groups of people that joined together on an ad hoc basis to win some political advantage.
John Aldrich explained that ambitous politicains created _____ to overcome collective action problems in order to achieve the goals of election and policy making.
The U.S. party system
falls far short of the party discipline required for the responsible party model.
party professionals policy-motivated
Political scientists classify people who participate in party activities as ______ and _____ Activists
responsible party model.
Political parties in the U.S. are not as strong and disciplined as in parliamentary democracies, and they fall short of the
Most modern democracies have
The number of voters who refer to themselves as independent is
policy motivated activists
People who believe in certain principles and are dedicated to implementing those principles are
1965 Voting Rights Act
As a result of the _____, large numbers of African Americans were brought into the electorate
A behavioral model of politics based on the assumption that human beings have a psychological need for predictability is called
party in the electorate, party in government, and party organization
There are three major divisions of political parties associated with different activities and different people. They are
it marked the peaceful transfer of political power form one party to another.
The Federalist loss to the Democratic-Republicans in 1800s was notable because
opposed the creation of a national bank because he considered it a dangerous monopoly.
Under a direct primary system, who has the power to decide which candidate runs as the party's nominee in the general election?
________ consists of professionals who hold the official positions in the party.
People whose incentives for participating are purely material and social are called_________
The legislature and the executive are separated under a_______system
Voters who identify themselves as independents who lean toward the Democratic or the Republican party tend to show highly _______ voting patterns
Historically, political parties have been viewed with _____ and _____in the United States
were formed sometime between Washington's last term and Jefferson's first.
_____ remain(s) a significant predictor of vote choice and shape(s) how voters perceive candidates and issues
8 out of 10
From 1982 to 2000, _____ elections resulted in divided party control of the presidency and Congress.
The Reform Party
seems to have collapsed due to infighting among party factions.
Party_______ Consists of elected and appointed officials who are considered representatives of the party.
the Republican Party
In 1994, _____________won control of both Houses of Congress for the first time in forty years
a two-party system
Historically, the United States has tended to have the characteristics of
Two Party competition
Long term rivalry between the democrats and the republicans clearly meets the requirements of a _______________
The first two political parties
the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.
_____ Benefits , including patronage jobs and government contracts, motivate party professionals to participate in politics.
The _____ of 1794 was created because farmers in western Pennsylvania werre outraged by the excise tax on liquor
A _____ is commonly defined as a situation in which a majority of Democratic members of Congress vote on one side of an issue and a majority of Republican memebers vote on the other side.
As defined by Madison, parties are indistinguishable from "factions" and "interests." T or F
The party in the electorate is _________ at election time
interest, faction, and parties
Madison used three different terms, _____, to describe the divisions in society
parties nominate and run candidates for office and interest groups do not.
The most important feature that distinguishes political parties from interest groups is
If the two major parties represented very different programs to Americans and the winning party carries out these programs, political conflict would____
_____ is a good example of the responsible party model of government.
Direct primaries are used by
help maintain the stability of the political system
The number of party votes in recent years has
A key reform designed to curb the power of party bosses was to replace_____ with _____ as the basis for getting a government job
an orginization that nominates and runs canidates for public office under its own label
running candidates for office under a party label is the most important difference between a _______ and an interest group
refers to a group that is part of a larger political entity. It commonly identifies a segment within a political party based on a personality, philosophy or geographical region.
Party in Electorate
consists of ordinary citezins who identify with the party and who usually support the party's candidates with votes and campagin contributions.
Party in Government
is the elected and appointed office holders at the national, state, and local levels who are considered represenatives of the party
Party _________ is made up of party professionals who hold official positions within the party and other people active in running an maintaing the partys organizational apparatus.
incentives for participating are primarily materail and social in nature.
Policy motivated activists
incentives are primarily puposive and social.
is a party organization headed by a "party boss"; they maintain power and control over goverment offices with techniques like nominations, partronage, graft and bribery.
is a behavioral model based on the assumption that human beings have a pscological need for predictability in thier relations with each other.
in______ represenatives of a single political party hold all or almost all of the major offices in government
Most contemporary democracies are _________ in which 3 or more parties effectively compete for political offices, an no single party can win sole control of the government.
Two party system
Only two political parties have a realistic chance of winning control over a significant number of major political offices.
Most liberal democracies use a system of multimember constiuencies and _______
The United States uses the single member districy __________ system, a winner take all system that makes it hard for minor parties to win office.
law explains the connection between the electoral system and the number of parties explains why the singel member district plurality system tends to favor the two party system.
In the ____ system the party that controls the majority of legislative seats chooses the chief executive, generally called a prime minister.
__________forms a government by appointing individuals to run the various government departments or ministries
The chief executive and legislature is elected independtly
______Have appeared often throughout our history. despite never capturing a significant number of national offices
______ is the means to require party members in public office to promote or carry through the partisan agenda and punish those who do not to the party line.
American electoral system frequently results in _________ which is when one party wins the presidency and another party wins a majority in the seats in one or both houses of congress;
Voting for the same partys canidate for president and congress.
_________commonly defined as one onwhich a majority of Democrats vote on one side of an issue and a majority of republicans vote on the other.
Political _______is government jobs and contracts that elected officeholders handed out to those who supported the party.
_______an election in which rank and file voters choose the partys nominees for various offices.
Rank and File voters
______are less likely than party leaders to choose candidates on the basis of party loyalty
________help manage societal conflict.
Campagn Funds Message
Political candidates in the new political environment still need ______ and a clear________
The election of Ronald Reagan and the Republican takeover of the Senate in the 1980 elections was a factor that
elected to office
The main job of the Republican National Committee and the Democratic National Committee is helping people within the party get
_______ a faction is a group that is part of a larger political community.
ambitious politicians created political parties
John Aldrich explained that _____ to overcome collective action problems in order to achieve the goals of election and policy making
Values and norms
Expectations associated with particular roles are based on the _____ of the society.
the States Righte Democratic (Dixiecrat) party
Which of the following third parties has received electoral votes in presidential elections?
In the _______ factions were groups of people that joined together on an ad hoc basis to win some political advantage