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only the responses increasingly similar to the target behavior are reinforced
objects/events that acquire reinforcing properties through association with a primary reinforcer
class of secondary reinforcers that have been paired with more than one primary reinforcer
one response is reinforced and then serves as a discriminative stimulus for another response
verbal command where something is demanded and then it is obtained; the obtainment is the reinforcer
what is it called when the target behavior is reinforced for every occurrence
whateverthe organism is caught doing during noncontingent reinforcement might be thought to have resulted in the reward when it actually isnt the reason for reward
time out from reinforcement
when an organism is taken from positive reinforcers that are normally available for a specific time period
agreement between two people where one is given something of value from the other if they act in an appropriate way
desirable behavior is reinforced with objects of value to later exchange for other desirable objects or events
stimulus leads to response, which produces a reinforcer, making the association between the S and R stronger
in order to learn, one must want something, notice something, do something, and get something.
innate hierarchy of responses
set of responses triggered by certain drive conditions when no learning has occurred
gradient of reinforcement
series of responses, last response is most reinforced, then second to last, and so on; explains why we take shortcuts
act of substituting one goal for another when the primary goal is not available or feared
aggressing toward a substitute person or object when the actual object of aggression is unavailable or feared
experiences never verbally labeled, repressed experiences
two major categories of unconscious material
this training situation is concerned with how the hunger drive is satisfied in early childhood
this training situation is concerned with how parents respond to the child's toilet training
early sex training
this training situation is concerned with how the child learns about sex and if they are punished for attempts to masturbate
this training situation is concerned with how the fear of punishment for being aggressive overrides the desire to be aggressive
the weak correlation between behavior across time, situations, and questionnaires equalling .30
person variables, situational variables, and behavior interact with one another continuously
traits, habits, repressed experiences that cause person to act consistently in similar situations
cognitive social person variables
these variables are how a person will select, perceive, interpret, and use stimuli
this cognitive social person variable determines what is attended to and how it is interpreted; how we see things
this cognitive social person variable constitutes what we think will happen in a given situation
this cognitive social person variable is concerned with whether an action is worth taking
this cognitive social person variable is concerned with how we attain our goals by intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement
this comes from observing the negative consequences of another person's behavior
this comes from observing the positive consequences of another person's behavior
these processes determine what is attended to and therefore what is learned through observation
processes where we either store things as a cognitive picture or store them as words describing the experience
often a delay between when something is learned observationally and when that learning is translated into behavior
behavior that is governed by intrinsic reinforcement and punishment; often directed as some future goal
cognitive mechanisms a person uses to escape self-contempt that would usually result when acting contrary to an internalized moral principle
transforming heinous acts into something not so bad; play on words; putting a spin on the meaning
disregard or distortion of consequences
ignoring harm caused by one's wrong doings; far removed from ill effects of bad behavior
attribution of blame
using something a victim said or did as a cause for one's wrong doing; blaming victim for their own problem
expectancies that are a result of faulty overgeneralizations or inaccurate modeling
imagining a series of anxiety-provoking scenes until no longer produces anxiety
modeling using something other than a person such as a demonstration, film, written instructions
t/f. Bandura believed that humans are autonomous and free to act independently of environmental and personal influences.
belief that human behavior is solely a function of environmental factors, functioning in an automatic and mechanistic way
unintended meeting of persons unfamiliar to each other; unplanned, fortuitous events
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