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137 terms

Personality Theory Exam 4

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radical behaviorism
type of behaviorism where only directly observable events are considered
John B. Watson
who proposed radical behaviorism?
classical conditioning
type of conditioning where a CS is paired with a US to elicit a CR
stimulus
in classical conditioning, behavior is elicited by a known __________
false
t/f. Pavlov and Watson took the operant approach to conditioning.
type S
classical conditioning is also referred to as "__________ _______" conditioning
operant level
frequency with which a response occurs before a reinforcer is introduced; baseline
rate of responding
how to measure operant conditioning
rate of responding
when a response is followed by a reinforcer, the frequency of response increases
differential reinforcement, successive approximations
two components to shaping
differential reinforcement
what is it called when some responses are reinforced and other are not?
successive approximations
only the responses increasingly similar to the target behavior are reinforced
extinction
when a reinforcer is no longer given
true
t/f. The rate of responding returns to the operant level after extinction.
discriminative stimulus
operant response made under only one circustance
generalized stimulus
a response occurring in similar situations
primary reinforcer
stimulus related to organisms survival
secondary reinforcer
objects/events that acquire reinforcing properties through association with a primary reinforcer
generalized reinforcer
class of secondary reinforcers that have been paired with more than one primary reinforcer
chaining
one response is reinforced and then serves as a discriminative stimulus for another response
mand
verbal command where something is demanded and then it is obtained; the obtainment is the reinforcer
tact
verbal behavior that accurately names objects and events in the environment
echoic behavior
repeating something verbatim; then being reinforced for such behavior
continuous reinforcement
what is it called when the target behavior is reinforced for every occurrence
partial reinforcement
what is it called when the target behavior is only sometimes reinforced
fixed interval reinforcement schedule
being reinforced after a specific time period
fixed ration reinforcement schedule
being reinforced after X amount of responses
variable interval reinforcement schedule
being reinforced after an average amount of time
variable ratio reinforcement schedule
being reinforced after an average number of responses
partial reinforcement
what type of reinforcement increases the resistance to extinction?
variable ratio
which schedule of reinforcement produces the highest rate of responding
fixed ratio
which schedule of reinforcement produces the second highest rate of responding
variable interval
which schedule of reinforcement produces the third highest rate of responding
fixed interval
which schedule of reinforcement produces the fourth highest rate of responding
superstitious behavior
behavior that results from noncontingent reinforcement
noncontingent behavior
reinforcement that occurs regardless of behavior
superstitious behavior
whateverthe organism is caught doing during noncontingent reinforcement might be thought to have resulted in the reward when it actually isnt the reason for reward
time out from reinforcement
when an organism is taken from positive reinforcers that are normally available for a specific time period
contingency contracting
agreement between two people where one is given something of value from the other if they act in an appropriate way
token economies
desirable behavior is reinforced with objects of value to later exchange for other desirable objects or events
Dollard and Miller
what two theorists combined freudian insights with learning theory
Miller
what theorist is credited with biofeedback?
drive reduction theory
Hull's theory is considered what type of theory?
habit
stimulus leads to response, which produces a reinforcer, making the association between the S and R stronger
drive
strong stimulus impelling organism into action to reduce it
drive
what is the motivational concept of Dollard and Millers' theory?
cue
stimulus indicating when, where to respond; guides behavior
responses
these are used to reduce a drive; they are elicited by drives and cues
reinforcer
any stimulus that causes drive reduction
reinforcement theory
in order to learn, one must want something, notice something, do something, and get something.
habit family hierarchy
group of responses elicited by a cue
innate hierarchy of responses
set of responses triggered by certain drive conditions when no learning has occurred
dominant response
response that has been most successful as bring drive reduction
dominant response
response with the greatest probability of occurrence in a habit family hierarchy
initial response hierarchy
arrangement of responses in a hierarchy before learning has occurred
resultant response hierarchy
arrangement of responses in a hierarchy after learning has occurred
false
t/f. If dominant response always reduces drive, learning will still occur.
learning dilemma
concept stating that the rearrangement of response hierarchies depends on failure
gradient of reinforcement
series of responses, last response is most reinforced, then second to last, and so on; explains why we take shortcuts
conditioned fear reaction
learning to fear something that was not previously feared
generalization
things similar to a specific stimulus elicit same response
primary generalization
type of generalization based on physical similarities
secondary generalization
type of generalization based on verbal labels; mediated by language
approach-approach conflict
type of conflict characterized by two equally attractive goals
avoidance-avoidance conflict
type of conflict characterized by two negative goals
approach-avoidance conflict
when one is attracted and repelled to the same goal
double approach-avoidance conflict
when one is both repelled and attracted to two goals
displacement
act of substituting one goal for another when the primary goal is not available or feared
displaced aggression
aggressing toward a substitute person or object when the actual object of aggression is unavailable or feared
aggression
frustration leads to ____________
drive level, completeness of interruption, minor frustrations
three factors determining aggression
first signal system
physical stimuli that precede biological events is known as what?
second signal system
verbal labels that symbolize environmental events
cue-producing responses
images, words, perceptions that determine subsequent responses
reasoning
cue-producing responses that solve an immediate problem
planning
cue-producing responses that solve a future problem
experiences never verbally labeled, repressed experiences
two major categories of unconscious material
suppression
conscious effort to stop thoughts
repression
painful thought is aborted before entering consciousness
symptoms
neurotics develop these to reduce fear and anxiety; may include phobias and compulsions
true
t/f. According to Dollar and Miller, neurosis can be unlearned.
free-association
Dollard and Miller believed in what Freudian technique for psychotherapy?
feeding situation
this training situation is concerned with how the hunger drive is satisfied in early childhood
cleanliness training
this training situation is concerned with how parents respond to the child's toilet training
early sex training
this training situation is concerned with how the child learns about sex and if they are punished for attempts to masturbate
anger-anxiety conflicts
this training situation is concerned with how the fear of punishment for being aggressive overrides the desire to be aggressive
Mischel
this theorist focused much on delayed gratification
Bandura and Mischel
these theorists said that behavior is not consistent
personality coefficient
the weak correlation between behavior across time, situations, and questionnaires equalling .30
consistency paradox
believing human behavior is consistent despite evidence saying it's not
illusory correlation
belief that variables are correlated when they aren't
reciprocal determinism
person variables, situational variables, and behavior interact with one another continuously
person variables
traits, habits, repressed experiences that cause person to act consistently in similar situations
situational variables
environmental circumstances in which a person finds him or herself
cognitive social person variables
these variables are how a person will select, perceive, interpret, and use stimuli
encoding strategies
this cognitive social person variable determines what is attended to and how it is interpreted; how we see things
expectancy
this cognitive social person variable constitutes what we think will happen in a given situation
behavior-outcome expectancy
believing that acting a certain way will have a certain consequence
stimulus-outcome expectancy
believing that if this event happens, that event will follow
self-efficacy
one's ability to engage in effective behavior
perceived self-efficacy
what one believes he or she can do
subjective values
this cognitive social person variable is concerned with whether an action is worth taking
self-regulatory systems
this cognitive social person variable is concerned with how we attain our goals by intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement
true
t/f. Bandura and Mischel would say that behavior is teleological.
competencies
these describe what a person knows and what they are capable of doing
model
anything that conveys information such as a book, person, television, demonstration, etc.
vicarious punishment
this comes from observing the negative consequences of another person's behavior
vicarious reinforcement
this comes from observing the positive consequences of another person's behavior
attentional processes
these processes determine what is attended to and therefore what is learned through observation
retentional processes
processes where we either store things as a cognitive picture or store them as words describing the experience
delayed modeling
often a delay between when something is learned observationally and when that learning is translated into behavior
motor reproduction processes
processes that determine what behavior a person is capable of doing
motivational processes
these processes are concerned with using incentives to encourage behavior
self-regulated behavior
behavior that is governed by intrinsic reinforcement and punishment; often directed as some future goal
human agency
the conscious plannning and intention of action toward future goals
self-exonerating mechanisms
cognitive mechanisms a person uses to escape self-contempt that would usually result when acting contrary to an internalized moral principle
moral justification
justifying a reprehensible act as a means to a higher purpose
euphamistic labeling
transforming heinous acts into something not so bad; play on words; putting a spin on the meaning
advantageous comparison
comparing one's own wrong doings with another's whose were worse
displacement of responsibility
saying that authority has control over out behavior
diffusion of responsibility
the whole group is responsible, not just individual
disregard or distortion of consequences
ignoring harm caused by one's wrong doings; far removed from ill effects of bad behavior
dehumanization
looking upon a group of people as subhumans with no feelings, hopes, or concerns
attribution of blame
using something a victim said or did as a cause for one's wrong doing; blaming victim for their own problem
self-control
this refers to the ability to tolerate a delay of gratification
dysfunctional expectancies
expectancies that are a result of faulty overgeneralizations or inaccurate modeling
change client's perceived self-efficacy
goal of psychotherapy
participant modeling
when the observer participates in modeling experience together with the model
systematic desensitization
imagining a series of anxiety-provoking scenes until no longer produces anxiety
symbolic modeling
modeling using something other than a person such as a demonstration, film, written instructions
false
t/f. Bandura believed that humans are autonomous and free to act independently of environmental and personal influences.
soft determinism
belief that human behavior is a result of thoughtful deliberation
hard determinism
belief that human behavior is solely a function of environmental factors, functioning in an automatic and mechanistic way
hard determinists
these determinists believed that personal responsibility is meaningless
freedom
this refers to having a number of options available and having the right to exercise them
chance encounter
unintended meeting of persons unfamiliar to each other; unplanned, fortuitous events
false
t/f. Bandura emphasized the importance of neurophysiology.