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radical behaviorism

type of behaviorism where only directly observable events are considered

John B. Watson

who proposed radical behaviorism?

classical conditioning

type of conditioning where a CS is paired with a US to elicit a CR


in classical conditioning, behavior is elicited by a known __________


t/f. Pavlov and Watson took the operant approach to conditioning.

type S

classical conditioning is also referred to as "__________ _______" conditioning

operant level

frequency with which a response occurs before a reinforcer is introduced; baseline

rate of responding

how to measure operant conditioning

rate of responding

when a response is followed by a reinforcer, the frequency of response increases

differential reinforcement, successive approximations

two components to shaping

differential reinforcement

what is it called when some responses are reinforced and other are not?

successive approximations

only the responses increasingly similar to the target behavior are reinforced


when a reinforcer is no longer given


t/f. The rate of responding returns to the operant level after extinction.

discriminative stimulus

operant response made under only one circustance

generalized stimulus

a response occurring in similar situations

primary reinforcer

stimulus related to organisms survival

secondary reinforcer

objects/events that acquire reinforcing properties through association with a primary reinforcer

generalized reinforcer

class of secondary reinforcers that have been paired with more than one primary reinforcer


one response is reinforced and then serves as a discriminative stimulus for another response


verbal command where something is demanded and then it is obtained; the obtainment is the reinforcer


verbal behavior that accurately names objects and events in the environment

echoic behavior

repeating something verbatim; then being reinforced for such behavior

continuous reinforcement

what is it called when the target behavior is reinforced for every occurrence

partial reinforcement

what is it called when the target behavior is only sometimes reinforced

fixed interval reinforcement schedule

being reinforced after a specific time period

fixed ration reinforcement schedule

being reinforced after X amount of responses

variable interval reinforcement schedule

being reinforced after an average amount of time

variable ratio reinforcement schedule

being reinforced after an average number of responses

partial reinforcement

what type of reinforcement increases the resistance to extinction?

variable ratio

which schedule of reinforcement produces the highest rate of responding

fixed ratio

which schedule of reinforcement produces the second highest rate of responding

variable interval

which schedule of reinforcement produces the third highest rate of responding

fixed interval

which schedule of reinforcement produces the fourth highest rate of responding

superstitious behavior

behavior that results from noncontingent reinforcement

noncontingent behavior

reinforcement that occurs regardless of behavior

superstitious behavior

whateverthe organism is caught doing during noncontingent reinforcement might be thought to have resulted in the reward when it actually isnt the reason for reward

time out from reinforcement

when an organism is taken from positive reinforcers that are normally available for a specific time period

contingency contracting

agreement between two people where one is given something of value from the other if they act in an appropriate way

token economies

desirable behavior is reinforced with objects of value to later exchange for other desirable objects or events

Dollard and Miller

what two theorists combined freudian insights with learning theory


what theorist is credited with biofeedback?

drive reduction theory

Hull's theory is considered what type of theory?


stimulus leads to response, which produces a reinforcer, making the association between the S and R stronger


strong stimulus impelling organism into action to reduce it


what is the motivational concept of Dollard and Millers' theory?


stimulus indicating when, where to respond; guides behavior


these are used to reduce a drive; they are elicited by drives and cues


any stimulus that causes drive reduction

reinforcement theory

in order to learn, one must want something, notice something, do something, and get something.

habit family hierarchy

group of responses elicited by a cue

innate hierarchy of responses

set of responses triggered by certain drive conditions when no learning has occurred

dominant response

response that has been most successful as bring drive reduction

dominant response

response with the greatest probability of occurrence in a habit family hierarchy

initial response hierarchy

arrangement of responses in a hierarchy before learning has occurred

resultant response hierarchy

arrangement of responses in a hierarchy after learning has occurred


t/f. If dominant response always reduces drive, learning will still occur.

learning dilemma

concept stating that the rearrangement of response hierarchies depends on failure

gradient of reinforcement

series of responses, last response is most reinforced, then second to last, and so on; explains why we take shortcuts

conditioned fear reaction

learning to fear something that was not previously feared


things similar to a specific stimulus elicit same response

primary generalization

type of generalization based on physical similarities

secondary generalization

type of generalization based on verbal labels; mediated by language

approach-approach conflict

type of conflict characterized by two equally attractive goals

avoidance-avoidance conflict

type of conflict characterized by two negative goals

approach-avoidance conflict

when one is attracted and repelled to the same goal

double approach-avoidance conflict

when one is both repelled and attracted to two goals


act of substituting one goal for another when the primary goal is not available or feared

displaced aggression

aggressing toward a substitute person or object when the actual object of aggression is unavailable or feared


frustration leads to ____________

drive level, completeness of interruption, minor frustrations

three factors determining aggression

first signal system

physical stimuli that precede biological events is known as what?

second signal system

verbal labels that symbolize environmental events

cue-producing responses

images, words, perceptions that determine subsequent responses


cue-producing responses that solve an immediate problem


cue-producing responses that solve a future problem

experiences never verbally labeled, repressed experiences

two major categories of unconscious material


conscious effort to stop thoughts


painful thought is aborted before entering consciousness


neurotics develop these to reduce fear and anxiety; may include phobias and compulsions


t/f. According to Dollar and Miller, neurosis can be unlearned.


Dollard and Miller believed in what Freudian technique for psychotherapy?

feeding situation

this training situation is concerned with how the hunger drive is satisfied in early childhood

cleanliness training

this training situation is concerned with how parents respond to the child's toilet training

early sex training

this training situation is concerned with how the child learns about sex and if they are punished for attempts to masturbate

anger-anxiety conflicts

this training situation is concerned with how the fear of punishment for being aggressive overrides the desire to be aggressive


this theorist focused much on delayed gratification

Bandura and Mischel

these theorists said that behavior is not consistent

personality coefficient

the weak correlation between behavior across time, situations, and questionnaires equalling .30

consistency paradox

believing human behavior is consistent despite evidence saying it's not

illusory correlation

belief that variables are correlated when they aren't

reciprocal determinism

person variables, situational variables, and behavior interact with one another continuously

person variables

traits, habits, repressed experiences that cause person to act consistently in similar situations

situational variables

environmental circumstances in which a person finds him or herself

cognitive social person variables

these variables are how a person will select, perceive, interpret, and use stimuli

encoding strategies

this cognitive social person variable determines what is attended to and how it is interpreted; how we see things


this cognitive social person variable constitutes what we think will happen in a given situation

behavior-outcome expectancy

believing that acting a certain way will have a certain consequence

stimulus-outcome expectancy

believing that if this event happens, that event will follow


one's ability to engage in effective behavior

perceived self-efficacy

what one believes he or she can do

subjective values

this cognitive social person variable is concerned with whether an action is worth taking

self-regulatory systems

this cognitive social person variable is concerned with how we attain our goals by intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcement


t/f. Bandura and Mischel would say that behavior is teleological.


these describe what a person knows and what they are capable of doing


anything that conveys information such as a book, person, television, demonstration, etc.

vicarious punishment

this comes from observing the negative consequences of another person's behavior

vicarious reinforcement

this comes from observing the positive consequences of another person's behavior

attentional processes

these processes determine what is attended to and therefore what is learned through observation

retentional processes

processes where we either store things as a cognitive picture or store them as words describing the experience

delayed modeling

often a delay between when something is learned observationally and when that learning is translated into behavior

motor reproduction processes

processes that determine what behavior a person is capable of doing

motivational processes

these processes are concerned with using incentives to encourage behavior

self-regulated behavior

behavior that is governed by intrinsic reinforcement and punishment; often directed as some future goal

human agency

the conscious plannning and intention of action toward future goals

self-exonerating mechanisms

cognitive mechanisms a person uses to escape self-contempt that would usually result when acting contrary to an internalized moral principle

moral justification

justifying a reprehensible act as a means to a higher purpose

euphamistic labeling

transforming heinous acts into something not so bad; play on words; putting a spin on the meaning

advantageous comparison

comparing one's own wrong doings with another's whose were worse

displacement of responsibility

saying that authority has control over out behavior

diffusion of responsibility

the whole group is responsible, not just individual

disregard or distortion of consequences

ignoring harm caused by one's wrong doings; far removed from ill effects of bad behavior


looking upon a group of people as subhumans with no feelings, hopes, or concerns

attribution of blame

using something a victim said or did as a cause for one's wrong doing; blaming victim for their own problem


this refers to the ability to tolerate a delay of gratification

dysfunctional expectancies

expectancies that are a result of faulty overgeneralizations or inaccurate modeling

change client's perceived self-efficacy

goal of psychotherapy

participant modeling

when the observer participates in modeling experience together with the model

systematic desensitization

imagining a series of anxiety-provoking scenes until no longer produces anxiety

symbolic modeling

modeling using something other than a person such as a demonstration, film, written instructions


t/f. Bandura believed that humans are autonomous and free to act independently of environmental and personal influences.

soft determinism

belief that human behavior is a result of thoughtful deliberation

hard determinism

belief that human behavior is solely a function of environmental factors, functioning in an automatic and mechanistic way

hard determinists

these determinists believed that personal responsibility is meaningless


this refers to having a number of options available and having the right to exercise them

chance encounter

unintended meeting of persons unfamiliar to each other; unplanned, fortuitous events


t/f. Bandura emphasized the importance of neurophysiology.

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