Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease Chapters 7-8 & 13-17
Terms in this set (208)
Type of bone that makes up most of the appendicular skeleton
Long narrow shaft of the long bone
At the center of the Diaphysis
Proximal and Distal Epiphysis
The long bone with its two irregular ends
Bone tissue, the hardest form of connective tissue
The material between the living bone cells
Build bone tissue (Blasts Build)
Mature Osteoblasts traped in the bone Matrix, Maintain bone tissue
Large, multinucleated cells responsible for the process of resorption, which is the breakdown of bone tissue (Clasts Cleave)
Found in spongy bone at the end of long bones and the center of other bones
Found in the central cavities of long bones
Has more spaces than it does compact bone, The second type of bone tissue
Thinner membrane, lines the bones marrow cavity. Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Membrane covering bones
Conversion of cartilage to bone
Develop across the ends of the bones, secondary bone plates
Distinguishing features in bones
Rounded, knob like end separated from the rest of the bone by a slender region, the neck
Large projection of bone
Rounded projection, a small projection above a condyle is an epicondyle
Distinct border or ridge, often rough such as over the top of hip bone
Sharp projection from the surface of a bone, such as the spine of the scapula
A hole that allows a vessel or a nerve to pass through or between bones
A cavity or hallow space, an air filled chamber found in some skull bones
A depression on a bone surface
Short channel or passageway, usually external opening of a canal.
Consists of 80 bones and includes the body framework of the head and the trunk
Consists of 126 bones and forms the framework of the extremities
Forms the forehead, the anterior of the skulls roof, and the roof of the eye orbit
Bones form most of the top and the side walls of the cranium
Contribute to the sides and the base of the skull
A light fragile bone located between the eyes
Lies at the base of the skull anterior to the temporal bones and forms part of the eye orbit
Forms the skulls posterior portion and part of its base
Lower jaw bone
Fuse in the midline to form the upper jaw bone
Forms the prominences of the cheeks
Lie side by side, forming the bridge of the nose
Shaped like the blade of a plow, forms the inferior part of the nasal septum
Form the posterior part of the hard plate
Simple bone fracture with no open wound
Broken bone protrudes through the skin or external wound leads to broken bone
One side of the bone is broken and the other is bent; most common in children
Broken ends of the bone are jammed into each other
There is more than one fracture line, the bone is splintered or crushed
Bone has been twisted apart, common in skiing accidents
Fracture foes straight across the bone
Break occurs at an angle across the bone
An area of junction or union between two or more bones.
Immovable joints that are fibrous with no joint cavity. The fibrous connective tissue between bones. Ex. Sutures between skull bones.
This type of joint is slightly movable with no joint cavity; the cartilage or sometimes fibrous tissue between bones. Ex. Pubis symphysis; joints between vertebral bodies.
Joint cavity containing synovial fluid. Ex. Gliding, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball-and-socket joints.
A bending motion that decreases the angle between bones away from the anatomic position, as in bending the fingers to close the hand.
A bending motion that moves the foot upward at the ankle, narrowing the angle between the leg and the top of the foot.
A motion that bends the foot so that the toes point downward, as in toe dancing.
A straightening motion that increases the angle between bones and returns the joint toward the anatomic position, as in straightening the fingers to open the hand.
A movement away from the midline of the body, as in moving the arm straight out to the side.
The movement toward the midline of the body, as in bringing the arm back to its original position beside the body.
The act of turning the sole inward, so that it faces the opposite foot.
The act of turning the sole outward, away from the body.
The twisiting or turning of a bone on its own axis, as in turning the head from the side to side to say no.
The act of turning the palm up or forward.
The act of turning the palm down or backwards.
A derangement of joint parts
The wrenching of a joint with rupture or tearing of the ligaments, usually as the result of abnormal or excessive joint movement.
Inflammation of the bursa, can be very painful with swelling and limitation of motion.
Enlargements commonly found at the base and medial side of the great toe.
When the central mass of the disk between the vertebrae protrudes through the weakened outer cartilaginous ring into the the spinal canal causing pressure on the spinal cord or spinal nerves.
A joint disorder that literally means inflammation of the joints.
A narrowing of the spinal canal or vertebral foramina, a common cause of lower back pain.
A crippling condition characterized by joint swelling in the hands, the feet, and elsewhere as a result of inflammation and overgrowth of the synovial membranes and other joint tissues. Is considered an autoimmune disorder, in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues.
A joint replacement
A single neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates.
The point at which a nerve fiber contacts a muscle cell.
A chemical released from the neuron to stimulate the muscle fiber.
A point of communication between neuron and another cell.
Motor end plate
The muscle cell's receiving membrane.
The muscle fiber's capacity to undergo shortening, becoming thicker.
A contracting subunit of skeletal muscle. Consists of a band of myosin filaments and the actin filaments on each side.
Stores oxygen in muscle cells.
The storage form of glucose in the muscle cells.
This process breaks glucose down incompletely without using oxygen.
In this type of muscle contraction the tone or tension within the muscle remains the same, but muscle length changes, and the muscle bulges as it accomplishes work.
In these contractions a muscle as a whole shortens to produce movement. The muscle changes shape and bulges outward.
In this contraction, the muscle lengthens as it exerts force. These contractions strengthen muscle considerably, but are more likely to cause soreness.
In these contractions there is no change in muscle length, but there is a great increase in muscle tension.
The less movable, more fixed, attachment of the bone.
The attachment to the body part that moves.
The main muscle that performs a given movement.
Any muscle that performs a given action.
The muscle that produces and opposite action against the agonist.
The muscles that steady or assist in an action.
The muscle surrounding the eye.
The muscle in the lip.
Levator palpebrae superioris
The muscle that lifts the upper eyelid.
The largest expression muscle that forms the fleshy part of the cheek, used in whistling or blowing. Often referred to as the trumpeter's muscle.
two of the four mastication muscles, located superior to the ears.
Two of the four mastication muscles located at the angle of the jaw.
The muscle that extends superiorly from the sternum across the lateral neck to the mastoid process of the temporal bone.
A traingular muscle that covers the posterior neck and extends the posterior shoulder to insert on the clavicle and scapula. This enables one to raise the shoulders and pull them back.
The latissimus dorsi
The wide muscle of the back and lateral trunk. Originates from the vertebral spine in the middle and lower backs and covers the inferior half of the thoracic region, forming the posterior portion of the axilla. The prime mover in arm adduction.
Located on either side of the superior chest. Arises from the sternum, the upper ribs, and the clavicle and forms the anterior wall of the axilla.
Located below the axilla on the lateral chest. It originates on the upper eight or nine ribs on the lateral and anterior thorax and inserts in the scapula on the side toward the vertebrae.
This muscle covers the shoulder joint and is responsible for the roundness of the upper arm just inferior to the shoulder. Named for the triangular shape.
The muscle involved in the act of breathing. Dome-shaped and forms the partition between the thoracic cavity above the abdominal cavity below.
Muscles attached to the ribs and fill the spaces between them.
A sudden and involuntary contraction, which is always painful.
Strong, painful muscle contractions, especially of the leg and foot.
A decrease in muscle size, when they are not used.
Overuse or overstretching that causes tears in the muscle tissue or tears between the muscle and its tendons.
Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
The stiffness and pain that occurs a day or so after an intense workout.
A potentially life-threating consequence of serious overtraining. Overworked muscles cells undergo necrosis, releasing their contents into the bloodstream. This can overwhelm the kidneys causing irreversible kidney damage.
A group of disorders which deteriorates the muscles that still have intact nerve function.
Characterized by chronic muscular fatigue brought on by the slightest exertion. Caused by the loss of acetylcholine receptors in the muscle cell membrane. Without these receptors the neurons can't trigger muscle contraction.
Inflammation of the muscle tissue.
Inflammation of the connective tissue.
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)
A disorder usually difficult to diagnose with no known cause. Asscoiated with wide spread muscle aches, tenderness, and stiffness along with fatigue and sleep disorders. Treatment may include pain relievers, muscle relaxants, or antidepressants.
An inflammation of muscle tendons and their attachments,
A form of tendinitis that involves the thick band of connective tissue on the bottom of the foot. May be caused by obesity, prolonged weight bearing and overuse.
Pain or soreness along the tibia from stress injury of structures in the leg.
The liquid portion of blood
The red blood cells that transport oxygen bound to hemoglobin; also carry some carbon dioxide and buffer blood. 4.5-5 million per mcL of blood.
Several types of white blood cells which protect against infection. Located in the blood, tissues, and lymphatic system. 5,000-10,000 per mcL of blood.
Cell fragments that participate in blood clotting. The smallest of all formed elements and normally 150,000 ro 450,000/ mcL circulating in blood. The life span is about 10 days.
The most abundant protein in plasma, is important in maintaining the blood's osmotic pressure or normal blood volume.
Hematopoietic stem cells
The ancestor of all blood cells.
The vital gas bound in the red cells, a protein that contains iron. Gives the blood its red color and plays an important role in acid-base balance.
Mature monocytes that are highly active in disposing of invaders and foreign material. Usually only survive for 6-8 hours but some may survive for days, months, or even years.
The process that prevents blood loss from the circulation when a blood vessel is ruptured by an injury. The steps are as followed: 1. Contraction of the smooth muscles in the blood vessel wall or vasoconstriction which results in less blood flow. 2. Formation of a platelet plug. 3. Formation of a blood clot.
Substances that prevent clotting
A substance capable of activating an immune response. Triggering the immune system makes and antibody that helps destroy invader cells.
Clumping, usually of the red cells.
When a person donates his or her own blood before undergoing a planned surgery to use during the surgery if needed.
The loss of a large volume of blood.
A machine that spins in a circle at high speeds to separate a mixture's components according to density. This is a common method used for separating the blood plasma from the formed elements.
When a donor's blood is removed, the desired components are separated and the remainder is returned to the donor.
A disorder in which there is an abnormally low level of hemoglobin or red cells in the blood and thus impaired delivery of oxygen to the tissues.
A neoplastic blood disease characterized by an increase in the number of white cells.
Conditions characterized by an abnormal tendency to bleed because of a breakdown in the body's clotting mechanism.
Anemia caused by excessive red cell destruction.
Anemia characterized by a deficiency of vitamin B12, which is essential for proper red cell formation.
A drop in the number of white cells.
A rare hereditary bleeding disorder characterized by a deficiency of a specific clotting factor. (Most commonly factor VIII)
Von Willebrand Disease
A clotting disorder that involves a shortage of von Willebrand factor, a plasma component that helps platelets adhere to damaged tissue.
A clotting disorder from a deficient number of circulating platelets/thrombocytes. This results in hemorrhage in the skin or mucous membranes.
A procedure in which an electric current is passed through the liquid that contains the hemoglobin to separate different components based on their size. This is how normal and abnormal types of hemoglobin can be separated and measured.
The visual blood count method done by using a ruled slide to count the cells in a given volume of blood under a microscope.
An increase in the red cell count. (normal is 4.5-5.5 million)
A disorder of the bone marrow that causes red cell proliferation.
When the white cell count exceeds 10,000 cells/mcL. This is a characteristic of most bacterial infections.
Differential White Count
An estimation of the percentage of each white cell type.
The chem-7 test
This test quantifies the levels of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate., blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine.
The central region of the thorax
The Apex (of the Heart)
The point, inferior portion directed to the bottom left of the heart.
The Base (of the Heart)
Directed toward the right of the heart in which is the area of attachment for the large vessels carrying blood into and out of the heart.
A thin, smooth layer of epithelial cells that lines the heart's interior. Provides a smooth surface for easy flow as blood travels through the heart.
The heart muscle is the thickest layer and pumps blood through the vessels.
A serous membrane that forms the thin, outermost layer of the heart wall.
The sac that encloses the heart
This side of the heart receives blood low in oxygen content that has already passed through the body and pumps it through the lungs through the pulmonary circuit.
This side receives highly-oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it through out the body via the systemic circuit.
The upper chambers of the heart that are mainly blood receiving.
The lower chambers of the heart that are forceful pumps.
A thin-walled chamber that receives the blood returning from the body tissues. This blood is low in oxygen.
Superior Vena Cava
This vessel brings blood from the head, chest, and arms back to the heart.
Inferior Vena Cava
This vessel brings blood from the trunk and legs back to the heart.
This chamber receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs.
This chamber receives oxygen-rich blood as it returns from the lungs in pulmonary veins.
This chamber has the thickest walls and pumps highly oxygenated blood to all the parts of the body.
The partition that separates the two atria.
The partition that separates the two ventricles.
The entrance valves to the heart, named because they are between the atria and ventricles.
The exit valves of the heart, named because each flap of these valves resembles a half-moon.
Right atrioventicular valve (Tricuspid Valve)
When this valve is open, blood flows freely from the right atrium into the right ventricle. When the right ventricle begins to contract, the valve is closed by blood pressing against the cusps. When the valve is closed the blood must flow forward into the pulmonary trunk.
Left atrioventricular valve (mitral)
The valve with two heavy cusps that permit blood to flow freely from the left atrium to the left ventricle. The cusps close when the left ventricle begins to contract which prevents back flow of blood into the left atrium and ensures forward flow into the aorta.
A semilunar valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk that leads to the lungs.
A semilunar valve located between the left ventricle and aorta.
The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute.
One complete sequence of heart contraction and relaxation. (One single heart beat)
The volume of blood ejected from the ventriclwe with each beat.
The number of times the heart beats per minute.
Located in the upper wall of the right atrium in a sinus, this node initiates the heartbeats, this is commonly referred to as the pacemaker.
The second node, located in the interatrial septum at the bottom of the right atrium.
A normal heart rate originating at the SA node.
A relatively slow heart rate of less 60 bpm.
A heart rate of more than 100 bpm.
A regular variation in heart rate caused by changes in the rate and depth of breathing. Considered a normal phenomenon.
Premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
A ventricular contraction initiated by the Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node.
An abnormal heart sound, usually due to faulty valve action.
Inflammation of the heart's lining, may involve the lining of the chambers, but most commonly refers to the endocardium covering the valves.
Inflammation of heart muscle.
Inflammation of the serous or fibrous membrane surrounding the heart.
A disorder that describes valves that fail to open completely or have narrowed openings, reducing blood flow within and out of the heart.
Valves that fail to close properly, leading to backflow.
Thickening or hardening of the vessels with a loss of elasticity.
A lack of blood supply to the areas fed by those arteries.
Durgs that act to dissolve the clots blocking the coronary arteries.
Drugs that lower blood cholesterol by inhibiting an enzyme the liver needs to manufacture it.
An inexpensive and time-tested drug for pain and inflammation that reduces blood clotting by interfering with platelet activity.
An anticoagulant that works by limiting vitamin K activity. Used to prevent thrombosis or prevent further clot formation following thrombosis.
One of the oldest drugs for heart treatment, this agent slows and strengthens heart muscle contractions.
Drug that reduces sympathetic stimulation of the heart. They reduce the rate and strength of heart contractions, thus reducing the hearts oxygen demand.
Drugs used to regulate the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat.
Slow calcium channel blockers
Drugs that aid in the treatment of coronary heart disease and hypertension by several mechanisms.
Surgery used to open restricted veins in the heart and other areas of the body using a balloon or stent.
a procedure where plaque is removed by cutting or grinding device that also captures small pieces of the disrupted plaque.
A procedure where arrhythmia by ablating heart tissue that is generating the abnormal signals.