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AP Human Geography Industry
Terms in this set (70)
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total costs (ex. textiles)
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border, to take advantage of Mexico's low labor costs
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
Assembly Line Production(Fordism)
system of workers and machinery in which a product is assembled in a series of consecutive operations; typically the product is attached to a continuously moving belt
Canadian Industrial Heartland
the St. Lawrence Valley - Ontario Peninsula (central Canada?). The region has several assets: centrality to the Canadian market, proximity to the Great Lakes, and access to inexpensive hydroelectric power from Niagara Falls.
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing, it tends to favor agglomerates/major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
the dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
Economies of Scale
as a company produces larger numbers of a particular product, the cost of each of these products goes down
tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wildlife or to help preserve nature
Natural resources that can be converted into energy (ex. wood, coal, gas, water etc.)
Export Processing Zone
Areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries (ex. Long Beach)
Expenses that remain the same for a period of time; must be paid regardless of the quantity of a good or service produced/sold (ex. insurance, mortgage
Industry not bound by locational constraints and able to choose to locate wherever it wants.
South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore all are experiencing rapid industrial growth
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
economic development, or growth, is not uniform over an entire region, but instead takes place around a specific pole.
Industrial Location Theory
By Alfred Weber, an industry is located where the transportation costs of raw materials and final product is a minimum.
the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems.
A site chosen for industrial development where total costs are theoretically at their lowest, as opposed to location at the point of maximum revenue
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
The tendency for an industry to locate near population centers in order to save on transport costs, which usually occurs when the final product is more expensive to transport than the raw materials (ex. auto industry)
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
of or relating to a society or economy marked by a lessened importance of manufacturing and an increase of services, information, and research
the eventual depletion of the fossil fuels on which energy-dependent economies rely heavily on
Special Economic Zones
specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment (China)
In industry, the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location.
through processes such as globalization time is accelerated and the significance of space is reduced
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
expenses that change with the number of products produced
Created theory- Minimize transportation cost, minimize labor costs, and Maximize Economies of Agglomeration.
A group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce; New York, London, Tokyo,
Rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water.
Efficiencies in production due to multiple different local (large scale) industries (airport service, financial services and banking, communications and media)
Concentration of trace substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur oxide, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air.
Aluminum Industry(factors of production, location)
Massive charges of electricity are required to extract aluminum from its processed raw material, aluminum oxide. Electrical power amounts for between 30% and 40% of the cost of producing the aluminum and is the major variable cost influencing plant location in the industry.
Bid rent theory
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
An organization that provides communications and networking services. A communications and networking "service provider." See common carrier and private carrier
primary (taking raw materials from earth - agriculture, mining), secondary (manufacturing - textile or auto industries), tertiary (providing goods or services)
A trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties.
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world./ Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
regions with extremely dense industry. It is usually heavily urbanized
Place (Industrial Regions)
a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character
Fuel Source (Industrial Regions)
material such as coal, gas, or oil that is burned to produce heat or power
Characteristics (Industrial Regions)
a feature or quality belonging typically to a person, place, or thing and serving to identify it
Industry becoming less know as it is no longer in demand
Industry becoming in demand and is well known and sought-after
International Division of Labor
The process where the assembing procedures for a product are spread out through different parts of the world
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
Major Manufacturing Regions
A region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together. Eastern Anglo America, Western and Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Eastern Asia
The products that are produced and shipped to another country. This is very common as production costs in other countries is often cheaper, which explains why a country would import a product rather than produce it themselves.
affected by industrial parks, agglomeration, shared services, zoning, transportation, taxes, environmental considerations
Sections of land that can be used for industrial business locations
Sharing HRM activities among geographically dispersed divisions.
The process by which passengers or goods are moved or delivered from one place to another.
Fees for the support of government required to be paid by people and businesses.
climate, community, economic status
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
Plant Location (supplies, "just in time delivery")
A-n inventory strategy that strives to improve a business's return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. Made possible by efficient transportation, and communication systems companies keep on hand just what they need
tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources
Specialized Economic Zones
specific area within a country that has tax incentives & less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
The population required to make provision of services economically feasible./In economic geography and central place theory, the minimum market needed to support the supply of a product or service
The deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change, so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed.
the actual or potential relationship of 2 places or regions that each produce different goods and services for which the other has an effective demand, resulting in an exchange between the locales
Being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time
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Services and Urbanization- Copleand
AP Human Geography - Development
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