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Chapter 2: The First Civilizations Section 4: Empires of the Fertile Crescent
Terms in this set (9)
2334 to 2279 B.C. powerful kind of the Akkadians who overran the Sumerian city-state and set up the first great empire that reached as far west as the Mediterranean sea..
Babylonian king who conquered most of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley and codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)
led the group of Chaldeans who took control of much of the territory that the Assyrians had ruled; governed the rebuilt city of Babylon from 605 Bc until his death in 562 BC; built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon regarded as one of the Seven wonders of the World.
Created the Persian Empire by defeating the Medes, Lydians, and Babylonians; he captured Babylon and took over the rest of the Fertile Crescent and Asia Minor; was known for his allowance of existing governments to continue governing under his name
The founder of Persia's classical pre-Islamic religion, Zoroastrianism; taught the universal struggle between good and evil and the idea of final judgement.
Why were Sumerians attacked by outsiders?
Serious infighting among the Sumerians weakened them to the point that they were left vulnerable to attack.
What characterized Babylonian society?
Babylonians lived by the Hammurabi code; their culture resembled the Sumerians; most babylonians farmed and were active traders; Babylonian women had some legal and economic rights...they could be merchants, traders, or even scribes. Babylonians adopted many Sumerian religious beliefs; sacrifices to their gods and they believe in a shadowy life after death; Babylonia priests held great power and wealth.
What invaders conquered Babylon and why did they fail to control it?
Hittites-warlike people who invaded the Tigris-Euphrates Valley from Asia Minor sometime in 1600 BC; they were too far from their homeland to control Babylon permanently, so they soon withdrew to the western part of the Fertile Crescent until invaded by the Sea Peoples
Assyrians- (900 Bc and about 650 BC)Semitic speaking people from northern Mesopotamia; they were fierce, effective warriors and used terror to control people; a civil war weakened Assyria so that they could not resist outside invaders.
Chaldeans- Under the leadership of Nebuchadnezzar the Chaldeans conquered most of the
Fertile Crescent; when Neb died the Chaldeans had difficulties and the empire fell within 30 years.
Persians- conquered Babylon in 539 BC; spoke Indo-european language; the early Persian kings were effective rulers; however, the kings that followed Darius and Xerxes lacked leadership abilities and the empire lost its strength and was defeated by Alexander the Great in 331 BC.
What were the achievements of the Persians?
The early Persian kings were effective rulers who administered the law fairly; they built roads to connect the cities within their empire; and the teachings of the Persian prophet Zoroaster probably influenced Judaism and later Christianity.
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