18 terms

Trinity DipTesol Phonology: Consonant Sounds

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Bilabial
the lips are brought together. /b/ and /m/
dental
the tip of the tongue id placed behind the teeth. /ð/ and /θ/
Labio-dental
the upper teeth touches the lower lip. /f/ and /v/
Alveolar
the blade of the tongue is placed on or close to the aveolar ridge. /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/, /z/
Palatal
the front of the tongue is place close to the hard palate. /j/
Palato-alveolar
the blade of the tongue is places just behind the ridge. /ʃ/, /ʧ/, and /ʤ/.
Velar
the back of the tongue is placed against or close to the soft palate. /k/, /g/,
Glottal
produced by a strong airflow through the glottis. /h/
Plosive/stop
when the air is blocked completely and then released suddenly. /b/, /p/, /t/, /k/
Fricative
when the air is partially blocked and friction is created. /f/, /θ/, /z/, /ʃ/
Affricate
a sequence of the a plosive and a fricative; the air is first blocked then released gradually. /ʧ//ʤ/
Nasal
when air is pushed through the nasal cavity rather than the mouth. /m/, /n/, /ŋ/
Lateral
when the air is pushed around the sides of the tongue, the tip of which is in contact with the alveolar ridge. /l/
Approximate
when two organs of speech come close to one another but not close enough to block the airflow or cause audible friction (kind of vowel) /r/, /w/, /j/
Voiced
a consonant which is produced with vibration of the vocal cord. /v/, /z/, /g/
Unvoiced
the vocal cords do not vibrate /f/, /k/ /s/
Fortis
unvoiced consonants
Lenis
voiced consonants
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