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Environmental Science Chapter 2
Terms in this set (39)
Examines the production and distribution of material goods and services of a society
How much of a good or service offered for sale at a given price
How much people want the product
A study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good
the study of economics as a component of ecological systems
the value that is not included in the price of a product or service
A situation in which the market does not distribute resources efficiently
A guideline for making decisions
Laws, rules, and regulations related to an environmental problem that are developed, implemented, and enforced by a particular government agency.
command and control approach
an approach that involves the government imposing limits on the amount of pollution firms are allowed to emit or requiring firms to install specific pollution control devices.
A government payment that supports a business or market
a tax placed on environmentally harmful activities or emissions
allows businesses to buy and sell permits that allow the emission a certain amount of pollution. The government issues these permits and caps the total amount of pollution that may be produced.
An attempt by a group to influence the policy process through persuasion of government officials
The Environmental Process
1. Identify the problem
2. Identify Specific causes of the problem
3. Envision a solution and set goals
4. Get Organized
5. Gain access to influential people
6. Manage drafting of bill and development of policy
a monetary reward for a specific act, designed to encourage that act.
World Trade Organization
an international organization that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation.
Non-Government Organization (NGO)
an organization that frequently is given tax-advantaged status because it provides a service that is considered to be in the public
The European Union (EU)
is the new regional European block of countries, which provides for closer unification of the economic, social and political systems of the member states.
An international organization that aims to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues.
International Environmental Policy
Interaction between domestic and foreign environmental forces or between sets of foreign environmental forces
Environmental Impact Statement
Statement required by Federal law from all agencies for any project using Federal funds to assess the potential affect of the new construction or development on the environment.
A branch of government that makes the nations laws.
Branch of government that enforces the laws
Branch of government that decides if laws are carried out fairly.
Which of the following facts influenced the shift in environmental policy in the U.S. during the mid- to late-1900s?
Americans found themselves living with dirtier air, dirtier water, and more waste and toxic chemicals.
What major part of the U.S. government has the main responsibility for overseeing environmental regulations?
Environmental Protection Agency
People often overlook the connection between their economic activities and the environment.When it comes to economic activities, how can people be more mindful of their effect on the environmental? Give one example.
People need to consider the external costs of their economic activities and understand the consequences of their choices. This requires changing our behaviors and actions with the understanding that resources are limited. They need to focus their economic activities on conserving resources like wood and clean water, otherwise the supply may not be able to keep up with demand. Since many environmental problems unfold slowly over long periods of time, there could be long term costs for any economic activity. For example, when developing land along a river, people need to recognize the costs in terms of the immediate effect on the local ecosystem as well as the future benefits of such development.
Outline the United States environmental policy from the 1780s to the late-1900s. How would you rate the progress made in U.S. environmental policy during this period?
In the United States, environmental policy first dealt with the management of public, federally owned lands. Policy reflected the point of view that the amount of land and natural resources in the West were endless. Later, the public became aware of the environmental problems associated with westward expansion, so policies were enacted to conserve resources. These policies lead to national forest, wildlife, and park systems. Eventually, increased population density and increased pollution further strengthened U.S. environmental policy. In all, I'd say that the U.S. environmental policy has historically been on the right track, but always seemed to need a bit of a "push" before putting the proper environmental protections in place.
What type of approach to environmental policy do you think is the most effective? Explain why.
Local incentives are the most effective approach to environmental policy. Local governments often have a more direct knowledge of factors that affect the environment, such as how much waste residents create or how much water and electricity they use. This knowledge can help local governments design their policies to more precisely address environmental issues. Plus, if a local government initiates a rebate program to its residents, it is in a good position to communicate more clearly and directly with the residents. In general, incentive programs can lessen environmental impacts at a lower cost than command-and-control approaches.
Choose one step of the environmental policy process and write about the consequences of leaving out that particular step from the process. What would happen if that step were left out, and why?
If people want to influence environmental policy but does not organize a group to support their efforts, they will most likely not succeed. Organizations and groups are generally more effective at getting the attention of elected officials. Organizations are more effective at raising funds that can be contributed to political campaigns or used to fund lobbying efforts. Therefore, without a group, it will be very difficult to move to the final two steps of the policy process—gaining access to policymakers and guiding the proposed solution into law. As a result, the effort exerted in the first few stages may all be for nothing. However, if population is controlled, individual people may be asked to give up some of their freedoms for the sake of the environment, but they may value their freedom more than the environment.
Name all of the parties involved in making environmental policies
Citizens, organizations, businesses, legislative branch, executive branch, judicial branch, state legislatures, scientists, governors, agencies, and judiciaries
How does the cap-and-trade approach to environmental policy work?
A government determines the overall amount od pollution it will accept for a certain pollutant and issues permits that allow polluters to emit a certain fraction of that amount. These permits can be bought, sold, and traded among companies, utilities and industries
Name one treaty that was designed to protect the environment
National Environmental Policy Act (1970)
Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972)
Endangered Species Act (1973)
Safe Drinking Water Act (1976)
Food Security Act (1985)
Pollution Prevention Act (1990)
Food Quality Protection Act (1996)
What is a characteristic of the laws enacted during the first period (1780s to late 1800s)?
These laws primarily dealt with the management if public lands--federally owned lands--and accompanied westward expansion. U.S. Environmental Policy during this era reflected the perception that the amount of land and resources available in the West was endless.
Give three examples of ecolabels
1. Fair Trade Certified - ensures that farmers in developing nations receive fair prices
2. USDA Organic - food is produced, processed, and certified to consistent national standards
3. EnergyStar - identifies products that are approved as energy efficient by the EPA
Briefly describe how economies receive support from the environment and affect the environment?
Economies depend on materials from the environment (sun's energy, fresh water, trees, rocks, and fossil fuels) to produce products, and on the Earth's systems, such as the water cycle, to handle production waste
What is characteristic of a centrally planned economy?
An economic system in which economic decisions are made by the state or government rather than by the interaction between consumers and businesses
why can we not identify MSC
What does "optimal level of pollution" mean in the context of environmental economics?
Granting fishers full property rights over salmon fishing, oyster beds would be better to solve the tragedy of commons than regulating fishing technology such as boats or nets, according to Anderson and Leal.
There are many teenagers who would like to work at gas stations, but they are not hired due to minimum-wage laws.
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