Age of Exploration Test Review
Terms in this set (25)
What was Mesoamerica?
Mexico and Central America; Maya and Aztec people lived here.
What were the two theories as to how people first arrived in the Americas?
Bering land bridge: Humans migrated over from Asia on a large land bridge that stretched between Alaska and Siberia.
Coastal Migration: Humans migrated to the Americas by crossing the seas and settling across the western coast of America
Where did the Maya live?
Describe the Mayan political structure.
Not an Empire and Not United politically. Made up of city states with each city state having its own ruler.
Describe Mayan Architecture.
Built palaces and temples.Priests performed religious ceremonies on top of the temples while the Mayan people watched below. Ceremonial platforms, temples, pyramids, ball courts all built by Mayans.
Describe Mayan Religion.
Polytheistic, practiced a little bit of Human Sacrifice.
Describe the Advancement in learning brought on by the Mayans.
Hieroglyphics and the 365 day calender.
What happened to the Maya?
Abandoned their cities around 900 AD. We do not know why.
Where did the Aztec live?
The Valley of Mexico in Central Mexico. Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Aztec empire.
Describe Aztec Government.
Created Empire through conquest.Conquered people and local rulers had to pay tribute to the Aztecs. Aztecs had an emperor whose main job was to lead in war.
Describe Aztec Religion.
Polytheistic. Built massive temples dedicated to their gods. (pyramid of sun and moon). Heavily practiced human sacrifice.
What happened to the Aztecs?
They were conquered by Hernan Cortes in 1521
Where did the Inca live?
Inca controlled an empire in the Andes Mountain region of South America.
Describe Inca Government.
The Sapa Inca (emperor) had absolute power. The emperor was claimed to be son of the sun. The emperor was the empire's religious leader. Empire was divided into four regions with the capital at Cuzco.
Describe Inca Religion,
Polytheistic. Primary god was Inti, sun god. Believed in reincarnation. Practiced Cranial deformation by wrapping tight cloth around new-borns heads to alter their skulls into a cone shape.
What happened to the Inca?
Civil war broke out in the Empire and Smallpox spread killing most of the Inca, but ultimately the Francisco Pizzaro-led Spanish conquistadors conquered the Incas and led to the fall of the Incan Empire.
What led to the Age of Exploration?
1. The Fall of Constantinople shut down trade routes so people needed new routes and took to the sea. 2. Gold, Glory, God. 3. Curiosity and adventure. 4. New technology such as better maps, compasses and astrolabe.
What was the Great Dying?
When great concentrations (60-80%) of people living in Mesoamerican and Andean zones weren't naturally immune to diseases like smallpox, measles, and yellow fever, so when the Europeans came in contact with these people, they died in appalling numbers.
What was the Columbian Exchange?
Enormous network of communication, migration, trade, spread of disease, and transfer of disease between the world. Mainly Europe and the Americas. Europeans and Africans brought plants and animals to the Americas and America sent things like potatoes and corn back to the old world.
Explain Triangular Trade.
The Trade between the Old World, the New World, and Africa. Mainly Sugar, Tobacco, Cotton, Slaves.
What were mestizos?
Mestizos were a Mixed race who were looked down upon in the Spanish Culture. Mestizos were the product of Spanish men and Indian women.
What were Creoles?
Spaniards born in the new world.
What were Peninsulares?
Spanish born people living in the New World, but born in Spain.
What was the Encomienda System?
A system where Encomenderos would extract wealth (gold and silver) or any other type of tribute from workers in exchange for protection and teaching Christianity.
In what order was the Spanish Social Structure?
1. Peninsulares 2. Creoles 3. Mestizos 4. Indians