Chapter 12 Heart and Blood Vessels
Terms in this set (62)
The thickest layer of the heart wall and the layer that is responsible for muscle contraction is the.
The membranous covering of the heart is collectively called the
This covering is formed of a loosely fitting double-sac that is composed of an inner layer called the. And the inner layer is called
What is endocardium? Describe it
The inner layer of the heart muscle lines chambers of the heart continuous with internal lining of blood vessels attached to the heart.
What is Myocardium? Describe it
Thick layers of cardiac muscle, provides force for contraction of the heart sandwiched between 2 thin membranes.
Name the 2 Atrioventricular valves.
Biscuspid or Mitral Valve 2 left Tricuspid Valve 3 right side.
Name the 2 semilunar valves.
Pulmonary semilunar valve located between right ventricle & pulmonary artery-trunk.
Aortic semilunar located between left ventricle & aorta.
Where are the atrioventricular valves located
The Atrium and Ventricle
What is the function of the Atrioventricular valves.
Allows blood flow from the Atria to the ventricles prevent the backflow of blood into Atria.
Where are the semilunar valves locate.
Found at the bases of large arties that carry blood away from ventricles.
What is the function of the semilunar valve.
Carry blood away from ventricles.
Which valve prevents the backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium.
Which valve allows blood going into the lungs to flow out of the right ventricle and into the pulmonary trunk, and at the same time, it will prevent blood from flowing back into the right ventricle.
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Which valve allows blood to flow out of the left ventricle up into the aorta and at the same time it will also prevent the backflow of blood into the left ventricle.
What are the string-like structures that attach or anchor the atrioventricular valve to the wall of the heart and prevent the valve cusps from being forced into the atria during contraction.
What are the 2 upper or receiving chambers of the heart.
What are the 2 lower or discharging chambers of the heart.
Arteries carry which blood from the heart TO capillaries in body tissues.
Veins carry which blood to the heart from capillaries in body tissues
It is the contraction of the ventricles of the heart that push or discharge blood out of the body
Contraction of the heart is called
Relaxation of the heart is called
Define Blood pressure.
The force or volume of blood in the blood vessels.
What is the mediastinum and what organs are located within it
The area in chest between the lungs that contains the heart part of the windpipe trachea
What is the cardiac cycle.
Heart beat 2phases that pump blood around body.
During atrial systole, blood flows from the atria via the open AV valves into the ventricles when the ventricles are full of blood this causes an increase in blood pressure within the ventricles causing them to contract or ventricular systole which forces the AV valves to close and the
The right atrium receives which blood from all parts of the body from the 2 largest veins of the body which are the
Superior & Inferior
The ventricle pumps blood into what structure
What structure branches or divides to form the right and left Pulmonary Arteries.
Newly oxygenated blood leaves the lungs via what structure?
The pulmonary veins carry OXYGENATED blood into which atrium where blood will travel into which ventricle of the heart.
Blood that travels from the left atrium into the left ventricle of the heart travels via what valve.
Bicuspid or Mitral valve.
Blood from the left ventricle will be pumped directly into the Aorta via which valve and will be carried to all parts of the body with the exception of the Lungs.
Heart is a double pump with 2 basic pathway or circuits of blood flow.
The pulmonary circuit is the movement of blood from the RT ventricles to the lungs.
The systemic circuit is the movement of the blood from the left ventricle through the body.
What blood vessel supply blood directly to the heart muscle.
Blood pressure is highest in the arteries and lowest in the vein
More blood in arteries higher or stronger pressure
Less blood in the arteries less pressure is excerted on blood vessels therefore lower BP.
What is the difference between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
What is the warning sign that the coronary arteries are no longer able to supply enough and oxygen to the heart muscle.
The first heart sound or the LUB sound is a result of the abrupt closure of which valve as the ventricles contract.
The conduction system of the heart consists of 4 parts
Sinoatrial (SA) node- Pacemaker of heart.
Atrioventricular (AV) node- Receives the impulses from SA.
AV Bundle- Group of fibers that branch from Purkinde.
Purkinde Fibers- Carry impulses to myocardium.
The key of the conduction system the pacemaker or the power station of the heart is.
SA Sinoatrial node.
Which node has the ability to INITIATE electrical impulse without help of the brain or spinal cord.
SA Sinoatrial node.
What is the function of the cardiac center where is it located.
Continuously adjust frequency of both sympathetic and parasympathetic impulses to produce heart rate that meets changing needs of body cells MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
What are 3 basic types of blood vessels.
Arteries -Carry blood away from capillaries.
Veins- Carry blood from capillaries to heart.
Capillaries- Exchange vessels.
Be able to describe the structural difference between veins and arteries.
Veins are much smaller than Arteries are bigger.
What are the precapillary sphincters.
Smooth muscle fibers encircling the bases of capillaries at the arteriole capillary junction. Blood flow in capillaries is controlled by precapillary sphincters.
Considering the flow of blood systemic blood flow would be fastest where and it would be slowest where.
Blood pressure is always highest in what blood vessel and lowest in the.
As blood moves further away from the heart and branches into smaller and smaller blood vessels there is very little blood pressure remaining to return it to the heart therefore describe the 3forces that work the blood flow or venous blood back to the heart.
Skeletal Muscle Contractions.
The systolic blood pressure is the pressure that is being exerted against the blood vessels while the ventricles are
Blood pressure is the volume or forced blood as it pushes against the wall of an artery 4 factors create this pressure.
Cardiac output. volume of blood pumped by heart 1min.
Blood volume. decrease & increase.
peripheral resistance. Control center.
blood viscosity. resistance of a liquid to flow.
The heart is a double pump it serves 2 distinct pathways.
What is Hepatic Portal Circulation
The route of blood flow through the liver .
The portion or circuit of the circulatory system carrying oxygenated blood to body tissues and returning deoxygenated blood to heart is the
The pulmonary circuit carries blood to
Name the 3 portions of the aorta
The first arteries that branch from the ascending aorta are the.
There are 3 major arteries that branch from the aorta arch of the aorta.
Left common carotid.
The abdominal aorta has many branch arteries that supply the abdominal wall and visceral organs the first branch of the abdominal aorta is the CELIAC ARTERY. The CELIAC ARTERY has 3branches they are
The abdominal aorta eventually divides to form the left and right which supply blood to lower portion of the trunk and legs. These arteries again and form the INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ILIAC ARTERIES.
The Veins carrying OXYGENATED blood to the heart are.
The 2 largest veins that empty DEOXYGENATED BLOOD in the right ATRIUM OF THE HEART are the
Superior & Inferior vena cava.
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