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Chapter 2
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Terms in this set (41)
Scientific method
A five-step process for empirical investigation of a hypothesis under conditions designed to control biases and subjective judgements.
Empirical investigation
An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and observations as research data.
Theory
A testable explanation for a set of facts or observations; not just a speculation or guess.
Hypothesis
A statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study; a statement describing the relationship among variables in a study.
Operational definitions
Specific descriptions of concepts involving the conditions of a scientific study.
Independent variable
(IV) A stimulus condition so named because the experimenter changes it independently of all the other carefully controlled experimental conditions.
Random presentation
A process by which the change alone determines the order in which the stimulus is presented.
Data
Pieces of information, especially information fathered by a researcher to be used in testing a hypothesis.
Dependent variable
(DV) the measured outcome of a study; the responses of the subjects in a study
Replicate
In research, this refers to doing a study over to see whether the same results are obtained.
Experiment
A kind of research in which the researcher controls all the conditions and directly manipulates the conditions, including the independent variable.
Extraneous variable
Variable that have an unwanted influence on the outcome of an experiment
Confounding variable
another name for extraneous variable
Control
Constraints that the experimenter places on the experiment to ensure that each subject has the exact same conditions
Random assignment
Each subject of the sample has an equal likelihood of being chosen for the experimental group of an experiment
Ex post facto
Research in which we choose subjects based on a pre-existing condition
Correlational study
A type of research that is mainly statistical in nature and determines the relationship between 2 variables
Survey
A quasi-experimental method in which questions are asked to subjects.
Naturalistic observation
A research method in which subjects are observed in their natural environment.
Longitudinal study
A type of study in which one group of subjects is followed and observed (or examined, surveyed, etc.,) for an extended period of time (years)
Cross-sectional study
A study in which a representative cross section of the population is tested or surveyed at one specific time.
Cohort-sequential study
A research method in which a cross-section of the population is chosen and then each cohort is followed for a short period of time.
Personal bias
The researcher allowing personal beliefs to affect the outcome of a study
Expectancy bias
The researcher allowing his or her expectations to affect the outcome of a study.
Double-blind study
An experimental procedure in which both researchers and participants are uninformed about the nature of the independent variable being administered.
Institutional Review Board
(IRB) A committee at each institution where research is conducted to review every experiment for ethics and methodology.
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee
(IACUC) A committee at each institution where research is conducted to review every experiment involving animals for ethics and methodology.
Frequency distribution
A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs.
Histogram
A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution. The hight of the bars indicates the frequency of a group of scores.
Descriptive statistics
Statistical procedures used to describe characteristics and responses of groups of subjects.
Mean
The measure of central tendency most often used to describe a set of data --> add all the scores and divide by the number of scores
Median
A measure of central tendency for a distribution, represented by the score that separated the upper half of the scores in a distribution from the lower half
Mode
A measure of central tendency for a distribution, represented by the sore that occurs more often than the others
Range
The simplest measure of variability, represented by the difference between the highest and the lowest values in a frequency distribution.
Standard deviation
(SD) a measure of variability that indicates the average difference between their scores and their mean.
Normal distribution
A bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristic through a population
Correlation
A relationship between variables , in which changes in 1 variable are reflected in changes in variable (heigh and age)
Correlation coefficient
A number between -1 and 1 expressing the degree of relationship 2 variables.
Random sample
A sample group selected by change
Representative sample
A sample obtained in such a way that it reflects the distributions of important variables in the larger population of important variables in the larger population in which the researchers are interested such as age, income period life.
Significant differences
Psychologists accept a difference between the groups as
real;" or significant, when the probability that it might be due to an a typical probability that it might be due to an atypical sample drawn by change is less than 5 in 100.
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