29 terms

Chapter 7 Introduction to Outdoor Emergency Care - Vocabulary

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Abrasion
a rubbed or scraped area of skin
Avulsion
the tearing away of soft tissue or a piece of soft tissue hanging as a flap
Assessment
the act of determining the nature of a patient's injuries and illnesses.
AVPU
a mnemonic for assessing neurologic function: represents Awaki or alert, responds to Verbal stimuli or Pain, unresponsive.
Blood pressure
the pressure of the blood on the interior walls of the arteries.
Chief complaint
the symptom or group of systems about which the patient is concerned.
Contusion
a bruise or soft tissue injury to a body part without a break in the skin.
DCAP-BTLS
a mnemonic for assessing trauma related injuries:
Deformity
Contusions
Abrasions and avulsions
Punctures and penetrations
Burns bleeding and bruises
Tenderness
Lacerations
Swelling
Decerebrate posturing
abnormal extension of arms and leg's downward pointing of toes and arching of the head: due to an injury to the brain at the level of brainstem.
Decorticate posturing
abnormal flexing of the arms, clenching fists and extending legs: due to an injury along the nerve pathway between the brain and the spinal cord.
Distracting injury
an injury that distracts the patient's attention away from the exam that is being performed by the rescuer.
Glasgow coma scale
a method for assessing neurologic function (i.e. level of unresponsiveness, movement)
Hypoxia
a reduction in oxygen supply to a tissue
Laceration
an open or soft tissue injury with smooth or jagged edges.
Level of responsiveness (LOR)
the degree of cognitive function and arousal of the brain: ranges from fully alert to unresponsive
Mechanism of injury (MOI)
The kind of force that acts on the body to cause injury, the method of trauma causing an injury
Nature of illness (NOI)
evaluation to determine the type of medical illness present
OPQRST
a mnemonic that is used in the assessment of a patient's chief complaint: represents
Onset
Provocation and palliation
Quality
Radiation
Severity
Time
Oxygenation
a process in which oxygen is added to the body's tissues.
Paralysis
or impairment of motor function in a part of the body.
Paresthesia
Sensation of tingling prickling or numbness of a person's skin. Or the feeling of "pins and needles" or a limb being "asleep"
PERRL
a mnemonic for assessing the eyes
Pupils
Equal
Round
Reactive to
Light
Pulse
rhythmic expansion of an artery caused by the movement of blood
Respiration
the act of breathing in and out, also, the act of taking on oxygen and nutrients and giving off of carbon dioxide and waste products by a cell.
SAMPLE
an acronym used to obtain medical history information during the assessment process: refers to
Signs/symptoms
Allergies
Medications
Past medical history
Last oral intake
Events leading up to the present incident
Sign
any objective finding that can be seen, heard, smelled, or measured: typically discovered during a physical exam (bruise, the patients bold pressure)
Swelling
an enlargement of body tissue caused by an accumulation of excess fluid.
Symptom
a subjective finding that a patient experiences can be identified only by the patient (eg pain, blurred vision)
Vital signs
the key objective findings used to evaluate a patient's overall condition: includes pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature and level of responsiveness.