A political leader of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries; a leader of the Democratic-Republican party. He was president from 1817 to 1825, between James Madison and John Quincy Adams. He issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, supporting the independence of Spain's colonies in America. The Missouri Compromise was reached in his presidency.
Robert R. Livingston
(1746-1813) American lawyer, politician, and diplomat from New York. Known as "The Chancellor." He administered the presidential oath of office to George Washington.
A public official of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Marshall served as chief justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835. His interpretations of the Constitution in cases such as Marbury versus Madison served to strengthen the power of the Court and the power of the federal government generally.
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
A political leader who served as vice president of the United States in the first term of Thomas Jefferson (1801-1805). After he killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel, his career declined. He was later involved in a bizarre conspiracy to sever the western states and territories from the Union. He was tried for treason but was acquitted.
A Shawnee chief of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He took arms against American settlers moving into the Middle West, and supported the British in the War of 1812, in which he was killed.
A Whig political leader of the early nineteenth century known for his efforts to keep the United States one nation despite sharp controversy among Americans over slavery. Herepresented Kentucky, first in the House of Representatives and then in the Senate. He was known as the "Great Pacificator" because of his prominent role in producing the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850.
A slave who was owned by Thomas Jefferson. Based on recent evidence from DNA and from the timing of Jefferson's visits to Monticello, most scholars now think it probable that Jefferson, a widower, was the father of one and possibly more of her four surviving children.
A formal accusation of wrongdoing against a public official. According to the United States Constitution, the House of Representatives can vote to impeach an official, but the Senate actually tries the case.
Any of the congressmen from the South and West, led by Henry Clay and John Calhoun, who wanted war against Britain in the period leading up to the War of 1812.
Non-Intercourse Act of 1801
In the last days of President Thomas Jefferson's presidency, the United States Congress replaced the Embargo Act of 1807. It lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. The intent was to damage the economies of the United Kingdom and France. Like its predecessor, the Embargo Act, it was mostly ineffective, and contributed to the coming of the War of 1812. In addition, it seriously damaged the economy of the United States.
Judiciary Act of 1801
This allowed President John Adams to nominate members of his own Federalist party to sixteen Circuit and five new District judge positions. These "midnight appointments" of judges and other court officials occurred just before he left office. After taking office, the Jefferson Administration asked Congress to repeal the Act.
Marbury v. Madison
The first time the US Supreme Court declared a federal law unconstitutional. It established the supreme court as the final arbitor of law.
Embargo act of 1807
An unpopular act ment to protect the American economy, but only harmed it. Commonly refered to as the O-Grab-Me act.
Louisiana Purchase Treaty
A treaty signed with France in 1803 by which the U.S. purchased for $15,000,000 the land extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada to the Gulf of mexico.
A war (1801-05) that Tripoli declared on the United States because of American refusal to pay tribute for the safe passage of shipping in Barbary Coastal waters.
The Barbary States
Those states along the African coast that exploited other countries by demanding payment in exchange for not attacking shipping vessals.