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Contenance Angloise

"English guise" or "quality"; Used to describe the pleasing sound of English music in the 1440's as described by Martin Le Franc


Improvised polyphony within the English style based on plainchant; Used 6-3 sonorities


Freely composed homorhythmeic settings of Latin texts but not based on existing chant; 6-3 sonorities mixed with other consonant sonorities


Refrain within a Carol that had its own musical phrase


Religious songs in Latin or English; Favorite topics were Christmas and the Blessed Virgin Mary; Solo and choral sections alternate; Distinctively English genre


Chant is given to the top voice; The chant melody is given a rhythm and ornamented by adding notes around those of the chant

Old Hall Manuscript

Principal source of early-15th-century polyphony

Duchy of Burgundy

Influence was nearly equal to that of the king of France; Phillip the Bold and Phillip the Good

Band of Minstrels

The musicians imported from France, Italy, Germany, Portugal; Instruments included trumpets, shawms, vielles, drums, harps, organ, and bagpipes.


Cross-rhythms of 3 1/4 notes in 6/8 time


Inspired by English faburden; Only the cantus and tenor written out with parallel sixths; Third unwritten voice sang parallel fourth below cantus producing stream of 6-3 sonorities

Mass Cycle

Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei in one work

Plainsong Mass

Text based on on existing chant for that mass; Coherence because they were liturgically appropriate, but not related musically

Motto Mass

Created a more musical connection by using same thematic material in all movements of mass; Frequently began each movement with same melodic motive in one or all voices


Primary linking device in a motto mass; Each movement begins with the same melodic motive in one or all voices

Cantus-Firmus Mass

Became principal type of mass by second half of 15th century; Linked movements of mass by constructing each one around the same cantus firmus

Imitation Mass

In this type of mass composers used tenor of a polyphonic chanson and borrowed some elements from the other voices as well

L'homme arme

"The Armed Man"; One of the melodies used most frequently in cantus-firmus mass

Contratenor Bassus

Voice below the tenor

Contratenor Altus

Voice above the tenor


The highest voice

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