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Chapter 8

STUDY
PLAY
Contenance Angloise
"English guise" or "quality"; Used to describe the pleasing sound of English music in the 1440's as described by Martin Le Franc
Faburden
Improvised polyphony within the English style based on plainchant; Used 6-3 sonorities
Cantilena
Freely composed homorhythmeic settings of Latin texts but not based on existing chant; 6-3 sonorities mixed with other consonant sonorities
Burden
Refrain within a Carol that had its own musical phrase
Carol
Religious songs in Latin or English; Favorite topics were Christmas and the Blessed Virgin Mary; Solo and choral sections alternate; Distinctively English genre
Paraphrase
Chant is given to the top voice; The chant melody is given a rhythm and ornamented by adding notes around those of the chant
Old Hall Manuscript
Principal source of early-15th-century polyphony
Duchy of Burgundy
Influence was nearly equal to that of the king of France; Phillip the Bold and Phillip the Good
Band of Minstrels
The musicians imported from France, Italy, Germany, Portugal; Instruments included trumpets, shawms, vielles, drums, harps, organ, and bagpipes.
Hemiola
Cross-rhythms of 3 1/4 notes in 6/8 time
Fauxbourdon
Inspired by English faburden; Only the cantus and tenor written out with parallel sixths; Third unwritten voice sang parallel fourth below cantus producing stream of 6-3 sonorities
Mass Cycle
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei in one work
Plainsong Mass
Text based on on existing chant for that mass; Coherence because they were liturgically appropriate, but not related musically
Motto Mass
Created a more musical connection by using same thematic material in all movements of mass; Frequently began each movement with same melodic motive in one or all voices
Head-Motive
Primary linking device in a motto mass; Each movement begins with the same melodic motive in one or all voices
Cantus-Firmus Mass
Became principal type of mass by second half of 15th century; Linked movements of mass by constructing each one around the same cantus firmus
Imitation Mass
In this type of mass composers used tenor of a polyphonic chanson and borrowed some elements from the other voices as well
L'homme arme
"The Armed Man"; One of the melodies used most frequently in cantus-firmus mass
Contratenor Bassus
Voice below the tenor
Contratenor Altus
Voice above the tenor
Superius
The highest voice