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AP World History: Time Period 4
Terms in this set (132)
A document whose purchase was said to grant the bearer the forgiveness of sins
A European economic policy of the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries that held that there was a limited amount of wealth available, and that each country must adopt policies to obtain as much wealth as possible for itself; key to the attainment of wealth was the acquisition of colonies
A European intellectual movement in the seventeenth century that established the basis for modern science
A government with a king or queen whose power is limited by the power of parliament
A passage through the North America continent that was sought early by explorers to North America as a route to trade with the east
A philosophical movement in eighteenth Europe that was based on reason and the concept that education and training could improve human society. Emphasis on human accomplishment.
King appoints person to rule in far lands or colony as a representive
A practice in the spanish colonies that granted land and the labor of Native Americans on that land to European colonists
A practice of the Ottoman empire to take Christian boys from their home communities to serve as Janissaries
A religious movement began by Martin Luther in 1517 that attempted to reform the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church; it resulted in the formation of new Christian denominations
A small, easy steerable ship used by the Spanish and Portuguese in their explorations
A way of gaining knowledge by means of direct observation or experience
An agent with trade privileges in Early Russia
An economic concept that holds that the government shouldn't interfere with or regulate business and industries
An economic system based on private ownership and opportunity for profit-making=
An extension of the Italian Renaissance to the nations of Northern Europe; the Northern Renaissance took on a more religious nature than the Italian Renaissance
French Enlightenment social thinkers
In the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, a person of mixed african and European descent
In the Spanish colonies, a replacement for the encomienda system that limited the number of working hours for laborers and provided fair wages
In the Spanish colonies, persons of mixed European and native descent
In the Spanish colonies, those who were born in Europe
Members of the Ottoman army, who were slaves, who were taken from Christian lands
Members of the society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic missionary
People from northeastern Asia who founded China's Qing Dynasty
Principles that govern nature
Rule by a king or queen whose power is not limited by a constitution
Rulers who controlled most of India in the 16th century and 17th century
Russians who conquered and settled Siberia in the 16th-17th century
Treaty or Tordesillas
The 1494 treaty in which the pope divided unexpected territories between Spain and Portugal
The belief of absolute rulers that their right to govern is granted by God
The belief of Protestant reformer John Calvin that God has chosen some people for heaven and others for hell
The bloodiest overthrow English King James I and the placement of William and Mary on English throne
The church in Constantinople that was converted to a mosque after the Ottoman Empire
The concept of God to the scientific revolution; that God was believed to have set the world in motion and then allowed it to operate by natural laws
The concept that the sun is the center of the solar system
The 18th century trade network between Europe, Africa and the Americas
The exchange of food, crops, livestock and disease between Eastern and Western Europe after the voyage of Columbus
The expansion of trade and commerce in Europe in the 16th and 17th century
The federal rulers of Japan who moved the capital to Edo. They ruled from 1603 to 1868
The Hindu custom of secluding women
The portion of the trans-Atlantic trade that involved the passage of Africans from Africa to the Americas
The practice of the Roman Catholic Church and other Christian churches of prohibiting participation in the sacraments to those who do not comply with church teachings or practices
The recapture of Muslim-held land in Spain by Christian forces. It was completed in 1492
The religious reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that occurred in response to the Protestant Reformation. It reaffirmed Catholic beliefs and promoted education
Western learning and information embraced by Japan
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
Ninety Five Thesis
Written by Martin Luther, explained his woes and problems with the Catholic Church
Early Modern Period
the time period of 1450 - 1750
(it is called this because events occurring in this time directly shape regional/political units of todays world)
Thirty Years War
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended the 30 years war, allowing principalities and cities to choose their own religion, creating a patchwork of religious affiliations through England.
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished.
Scholars based their inquiry on the principles established by the church, which sometimes resulted in clases between science and religion
Brahe & Kepler
developed a more complex theory from Copernicus in 1610
used the first telescope during the Renaissance in 1609, where he made many large discoveries in the solar system, until he was put under house arrest for spreading conflicting ideas
interest in the capabilities and accomplishments of individuals
supporters of the arts, with payment and such, they found talented artists, often when they were young
was a powerful family of Florence in the mid to late 1400s that sponsored artists as a rich merchant family
a humanist Dutch priest that published the first edition of the New Testament in Greek in 1516
a German goldsmith and printer, who created the printing press, in 1454
a Renaissance writer who wrote, "The Prince" which was a famous philosophical view of the ideal political leader in the 16th century, in Italian city states
The Catholic Church's grants of salvation for money in the 1500s, and was part of the growing corruption of the church.
A protestant who established a variation of his beliefs on a stern and vengeful God.
A form of Christianity established by Henry VIII that was not decided on the grounds of religious belief, but because the pope would not allow him to divorce his wife.
a Polish monk who based tables on those by Nasir Al-Din, an Islamic scholar, to correct inaccurate calendars.
A shift in land based powers where governments controlled lands by building armies, bureaucracies, road, canals, and walls that unified and protected
Sea people built their power by controlling water routes, developing technology to cross the seas, and gaining wealth from trade and land claims.
A heightened intellectual and artistic advance from about 1450s, that changed Europe forever
He analyzed the natural law of supply and demand that governed economies in his classic book, "The Wealth of Nations"
sought to understand the impact of the "laws of nature" on human liberties
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
admired the British Parliament that had successfully gained power at the expense of the king, who also advocated a three-branch government with three branches that shared political power
wrote witty criticisms of the French monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church. He believed both institutions to be despotic and intolerant, limiting freedoms
the most radical of the common philosophers, he proclaimed in his social context that "Man is born free: and everywhere he is in chains". Since society had "Corrupted" human nature, he advocated a return to nature in a small, co-op community
Holy Roman Empire
a place/time where religion remained very important, and religious issues continued to fragment, and strong kings emerged in the 16th century
the retaking of land in Iberia by Spain and Portugal in a religious crusade to expand. This conquest advanced in waves over several centuries.
these companies organized commercial ventures on a large scale by allowing investors to buy and sell shares. The new capitalist system largely replaced the old guild system of the middle ages.
Vasco da Gama
set out to find the tip of Africa and connect it to the Indian Ocean, and discovered the fastest and safest ways to travel to Portugal
A Genoese mariner who convinced Isabella and Ferdinand to sponsor a voyage across the Atlantic after he was turned down by the Genoese and Portugal. He believed he could reach east Asia by sailing West.
had a ship that was first to circumnavigate the glove, even though Magellan himself died in the phillipines
went to search for gold and convert the natives to Christianity in the interior of Mexico
sought to find the Aztec capital, and took over the Aztec land - with help of Amerindians, disease, and technology
the term that describes the tendency of human beings to view their own culture as superior
composed of those born in the new world; a quickly growing class
a middle-level status between Europeans at the top; and Amerindians and blacks at the bottom
Dutch East India Company
a joint stock company that specialized in the spice and luxury trade of the East Indies and quickly gained control of Dutch Trading in the Pacific
a system which was usually ethnically the same as a free settler, but he or she was bound by an "indenture" (contract) to work for a person for four to seven years, in exchange for payment of the new world voyage
the global diffusion of crops, other plants, human beings, animals, and distance that took place after the European exploring voyages of the New World
a small number of rich men owns most of the slaves and land, as well as had all the power
runaway slaves in the Carribean
The spreading of Africans to many other parts of the world, especially the Americas. This is one of the most important demographic changes during 1450 - 1750
an age of time where almost all powerful states used guns to build control/attack (included Russia, Ming and Qing, Japan, the Ottoman Empire, the Safavid and the Mughal empire)
Suleiman the Magnificent
ruled the Ottomans as the empire reached the height of its power. The Ottomans controlled much of the water traffic between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean sea
an empire that grew from a turkish nomadic group, that were Shi'ite muslims
a building of beauty built as a tomb for Mumtaz Mahal's wife.
an empire that that was a mixture of Mongol and Turkish peoples from Central Asia, which dominated India until the early 1700s
a form of drama that consisted of several acts and separate skits with singing, dancing, and elaborate staging. (Actors became well known starts)
The nobility of the Russia feudal based economic system. They also had military responsibilities to overlords, including the tsar
Peter the Great
The tsar of Russia in 1682 to 1724, who was most responsible for transforming Russia into a great world power. He understood how things worked globally, and expanded water ports
The "Window to the West" established by Peter the Great, which was a capital built on the shoes of the newly accessed Baltic Sea (a port for the new navy + allowed closer access to western countries)
a derivative of "Caesar", establishing a "3rd rome". This was a major propaganda for Russia
power territorial lords, who held local control of areas. Some Daimyos had more influence than others, but each maintained his own governments and had his own samurai
Required Daimyos to spend every other year at the Tokugawa court, keeping their power in check. Weakened in two ways: their wealth was affected by having two households, and their ability to establish separate power bases was impaired
one of the rulers of the Manchu dynasty, helped to create a prosperous, powerful, and culturally rich empire. A sophisticated confucian scholar as well. His reign brought an empire that grew dramatically.
the dispatch of Lord Macartney with other people to China, showing Britain's great interest in the Qing empire, as well the d Macartney esire to reuse the trade system
The name of the empire after the Ming; seized China from the emperors who could no longer defend their borders from the Manchu
was the home of the emperor and his family, which expanded service people to 20,000; as the government returned to Beijing from Manjing
a special, often deep bow to the Chinese emperor. In the Qing dynasty, those who came to see the emperor had to do a special bow consisting of 3 separate kneeling
a ruler of the Manchu dynasty who helped to create a prosperous, powerful, and culturally rich empire. He brought much prosperity that he cancelled taxes 4 times
The most famous emperor of India's Mughal
Empire (r. 1556-1605); his policies are noted for
their efforts at religious tolerance and inclusion.
The massive transatlantic interaction and exchange between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia that began in the period of European exploration and colonization.
Spanish conquerors of the Native American lands, most notably the Aztec and Inca empires.
The capital and almost the only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the army of the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror," an event that
marked the end of Christian Byzantium.
The Great Dying
Term used to describe the devastating
demographic impact of European-borne epidemic
diseases on the Americas.
Literally, "mixed"; a term used to describe
the mixed-race population of Spanish colonial societies
in the Americas.
Term commonly used for people of mixed
African and European blood.
Major Islamic state centered on
Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near
East, and much of North Africa.
Russia's great frontier region, a vast territory
of what is now central and eastern Russia, most of
it unsuited to agriculture but rich in mineral
resources and fur-bearing animals.
British/Dutch East India companies
Private trading companies chartered by the governments of England and the Netherlands around 1600; they were given monopolies on Indian Ocean trade, including the right to make war and to rule conquered peoples.
Feudal lords of Japan who ruled with virtual
independence thanks to their bands of samurai warriors.
Portuguese mariner who commanded the first European (Spanish) fleet to circumnavigate the globe (1519-1521).
Name commonly given to the journey
across the Atlantic undertaken by African slaves
being shipped to the Americas.
The warrior elite of medieval Japan.
In Japan, a supreme military commander.
Trading post empire
Form of imperial dominance based on control of trade rather than on control of subject peoples.
An internal reform of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century; thanks especially to the work of the Council of Trent (1545-1563), Catholic leaders clarified doctrine, corrected abuses and corruption, and put a new emphasis on education and accountability.
Polish mathematician and
astronomer (1473-1543) who was the first to argue
for the existence of a heliocentric cosmos.
Jesuits in China
Series of Jesuit missionaries in the
late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who,
inspired by the work of Matteo Ricci, made
extraordinary efforts to understand and become a
part of Chinese culture in their efforts to convert
the Chinese elite, although with limited success
German priest and theologian (1483-1546) who inaugurated the Protestant Reformation movement in Europe.
English natural scientist (1643-1727) whose formulation of the laws of motion and mechanics is regarded as the culmination of the Scientific Revolution.
Religious tradition of northern India founded by Guru Nanak ca. 1500; combines elements of Hinduism and Islam and proclaims the brotherhood of all humans and the equality of men and women.
Thirty Year's War
Highly destructive war (1618-1648) that eventually included most of Europe; fought for the most part between Protestants and Catholics, the conflict ended with the Peace of Westphalia (1648).
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