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This study set will include terms, government systems, monarchies, economic systems, philosophers, rights, amendments, powers, Missouri's legislative body, branches of government, the articles of confederation, constitutional conventions, federalists papers, executive departments, policies, and application of amendments. I hope this will help you prepare for your Government EOC!

Absolute Monarchy

Usually a hereditary position where all power is held by a King or a Queen.

Constitutional Monarchy

Power is shared between the monarchs and legislature.


A dictator holds absolute power which is usually maintained by fear and intimidation. They are usually militaristic leaders (or generals). They almost always use force.


Example: North Korea


A small group of rulers hold the political power. They rule to their personal beliefs and benefit.

Presidential System
1. How is the chief executive chosen?
2. What title is given to the chief executive?
3. Who is the head of state?

1. vote in the electoral college.
2. President.
3. President.

Parliamentary System
1. How is the chief executive chosen?
2. What title is given to the chief executive?
3. Who is the head of state?

1. Elected by the legislature
2. Prime Minister
3. Monarch or a President

Unitary System
* Power

* Power is held in one central government (they hold all power)
* The levels maintain order/ put laws to use
*Pros: No 1 person has all the power
*Cons: Local officials have no input

Confederal System

*Power comes from the states
(Independent states write to accomplish common goals)
*Each state is represented in the central government
*Pros: States wanted rights
* Cons: There is no strong central government

Federal System

* The power is evenly split between federal, state, and local governments
(People elect representatives)
* The levels all make laws, elect officials, and create agencies.
*Pros; evenly distributed power
*Cons: It's hard to get things done quickly

Why does the U.S. Government use a republican form of government instead of direct democracy?

Because we would have less participation in government, no one would get along, and it would be too time consuming.

Capitalism Principles

1. Private Ownership
2. Free-market economy that allows human choice
3. Competition between producers
4. Ability to make a profit
5. Laissez-Faire Perspective

Communism Principles

1. everything is owned by the government
2. usually ruled by a dictator
3. called command economy because of governments total control over all economic and political activities.
4. It is often a failure
5. Citizens have fewer rights

Socialism Principles

1. Government owns or controls many factors of production
2. Nationalism of major industries
3. Equal distribution
4. Command Economy-government control
5. High taxation
6. Reduces concentration of wealth

Thomas Hobbes

An English philosopher who thought people were cruel, greedy, and selfish. Came up with the idea of the social contract: You give up the right to state of nature for an organized society and peace. * Thought that the best government was an absolute monarchy.

John Locke

Agrees with the social contract. English philosopher who thought people were basically good. Natural rights- life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness(right to own your own property). * Believed it was the governments job to protect natural rights

Baron De Montesquieu

Was not a fan of the absolute monarchy. He admired Britain's limited monarchy. He thought it protected people from tyranny. He had a pessimistic view of mankind, felt human nature was corrupt.

Jean-Jacque Rousseau

Thought that people were basically good. What makes people act bad are social evils- poverty and lack of power. Thought there were too many controls on people. Democracy *Society as a whole was better than the individual.

Which philosopher most greatly influenced Thomas Jefferson with their writings?

John Locke

What three ideas did Jefferson take from John Locke?

1. Unalienable Rights
2. Power from the people
3. The people can dissolve the government if it fails

Popular Sovereignty

* The governments authority to rule comes from the people.

Representative Democracy

People elect representatives to run the government for them.

Limited government

* The idea adopted from England; Government is to prevent the executive from gaining too much power.

Separation of Powers

* Dividing the power of government into 3 separate branches so that no one branch holds too much power.

Checks and Balances

* Used to prevent abuses of power, each branch can check the power of the other two.


* Powers are divided amongst the levels of government. All levels of government have separation of power, elected officials, and collect taxes.

What are reserved powers?

Powers not listed in the constitution that only the states have.

What is the name of Missouri's legislative body?

General Assembly

What title is given to the chief executive of Missouri?


Who is the current governor of Missouri?

Jay Nixon

What is the difference between the state and federal budget?

*State Budget must be balanced
*Federal Budget can run a defecit

What are the main functions of each branch of government?
a. executive
b. legislative
c. judicial

a. Carry Out Laws
b. Make Laws
c. Interpret Laws

What vocabulary term indicates the order or people set to replace the president?

Order of Secession

Who are the first three people in line to replace the president?

1. Vice President
2. Speaker of the House
3. President Pro-Tempore of the Senate

What were the articles of confederation?

Document that organized our government. (First national government in America)

What caused the Articles of Confederation to fail?

* The lack of national currency and a weak national government.

Describe how the articles limited the national government.

No executive or judicial branch could tax or regulate trade.

What event demonstrated the need for a stronger national government?

Shays Rebellion

New Jersey Plan

A national government with a unicameral legislature based upon equality between the states and in which the states had a stronger role.

Virginia Plan

* A strong national government with a bicameral legislature based on each states population and with an executive and judiciary both chosen by a legislature.

The Great Compromise (AKA The Connecticut Compromise)

Combined the New Jersey and Virginia Plans and had a bicameral legislature.

How is representation determined in the House?


How is representation determined in the Senate?

2 per state. (Based on equality)

What were the federalist papers?

* A series of 85 articles written to convince people to ratify the constitution. Explains how the constitution is supposed to work.

What did the federalists promise the antifederalists in order to ratify the constitution?

* A Bill of Rights

Define Tyranny

* Absolute rule by government that ignores rights and welfare of the people

What is the War Powers Act Resolution?

*The President can send out troops for up to 60 days without congressional approval

What is the main role of the Electoral College?

To select the president and vice president

Total # of electors in the Electoral College


# of electors needed to win presidency


Equation for # of state electors

Senators + House Members

Number of Missouri Electors?


How does the popular vote effect the presidential election?

Whichever candidate receives the most popular votes receives all of the electoral college votes for that state.

What are the three roles of the Vice President?

1. Handles Policy Issues
2. Serves as a spokesperson for the White House
3. President of the Senate

How many executive departments are there within the cabinet?


What is the title given to the leader of all but one department?


Department of Defense

* Includes all branches of the military
*Provides military advice and leadership for the president

Department of State

* Leads the foreign affairs agency.
* Advises the president and helps implement the presidents foreign policy
* Secretary of State often meets with leaders of other countries
* Issues passports and visas
* Maintains diplomatic relations

Department of Treasury

*Creates and recommends fiscal policy
* Manufactures coins, currency, and postage stamps
* IRS and Secret Service are part of the Department of Treasury

Department of Homeland Security

* Most recently established Department (2002)
* Established to prevent terrorists attacks in the U.S.
* 22 federal agencies fall under homeland security

Fiscal Policy

* Using government expenditure and revenue collection to influence the economy
* Taxes and spending- done by the government

Monetary Policy

* Using a rate of interest to control money supply and stabilize the economy.
* Interest Rates- used by the Central Bank (Feds)

What is the bureaucracy?

All of the agencies and departments working for the government.


government telling you what you can and cannot say or read.


Something false is written and damages someones reputation (Protected by the first amendment)


Threats/ something false is spoken (Also protected by the first amendment)

Poll Tax

A tax placed on voting (kept blacks or poor whites from voting)

Grandfather Clause

A law to descriminate against blacks ( If your grandfather couldn't vote you can't either.

JIm Crow Laws

Laws that descriminated segregation of blacks


part of something

Unalienable Rights

Rights given to you for being human- they cannot be taken away.


a government that has a very strong national government/ usually with a dictator


Someone who already holds office


Of or dealing with a political party ( You always take a side of one political party)

Concurrent Powers

Powers shared between the national and state government

Reserved Powers

Powers set exclusively aside for the state

Expressed Powers

Powers specifically granted to the federal government

1st Amendment

Freedom of Press, Religion, Speech, Petition, and Assembly

2nd Amendment

Right to bear arms

3rd Amendment

Protects citizens from being forced to quarter soldiers

4th Amendment (Privacy Amendment)

Protects people from unreasonable searches and seizures

5th Amendment

Protects people accused of crimes

6th Amendment

Ensures the right to a trial by jury in criminal cases

7th Amendment

Guarantees the right to trial by jury in civil cases

8th Amendment

(ONLY FOR CRIMINALS) Prohibits excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment

9th Amendment

Protects the rights of citizens not specifically listed in the constitution

10th Amendment

Gives powers to the states that are not listed in the constitution

11th Amendment

Citizens cannot sue a state in a federal court

12th Amendment

Changed the election procedure for the president and vice president

13th Amendment

Abolished Slavery

14th Amendment

Defines citizenship (granted to former slaves) and assures equal protection of the laws

15th Amendment

Prohibits restrictions on voting based on race or color

16th Amendment

gives the power to levy an income tax

17th Amendment

Direct election of senators

18th Amendment

Prohibits the manufacture, sale, or consumption of alcohol

19th Amendment

Women's Suffrage

20th amendment

Changed the date that the president and congress members take office. ( January 3rd)

21st Amendment

Repeals the 18th Amendment

22nd Amendment

Two-term limit on the president

23rd Amendment

Gives the residents of Washington D.C. the right to vote

24th Amendment

Abolished Poll Taxes

25th Amendment

Provided a clear presidential secession

26th Amendment

Changed the voting age to 18

27th Amendment

Congressional Raises take effect after the next election (paychecks won't increase until after the election)

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