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104 terms

Government EOC Practice

This study set will include terms, government systems, monarchies, economic systems, philosophers, rights, amendments, powers, Missouri's legislative body, branches of government, the articles of confederation, constitutional conventions, federalists papers, executive departments, policies, and application of amendments. I hope this will help you prepare for your Government EOC!
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Absolute Monarchy
Usually a hereditary position where all power is held by a King or a Queen.
Constitutional Monarchy
Power is shared between the monarchs and legislature.
Dictatorship
A dictator holds absolute power which is usually maintained by fear and intimidation. They are usually militaristic leaders (or generals). They almost always use force.
Totalitarian
TOTAL CONTROL!!!
Example: North Korea
Oligarchy
A small group of rulers hold the political power. They rule to their personal beliefs and benefit.
Presidential System
1. How is the chief executive chosen?
2. What title is given to the chief executive?
3. Who is the head of state?
1. vote in the electoral college.
2. President.
3. President.
Parliamentary System
1. How is the chief executive chosen?
2. What title is given to the chief executive?
3. Who is the head of state?
1. Elected by the legislature
2. Prime Minister
3. Monarch or a President
Unitary System
* Power
*Levels
*Pros
*Cons
* Power is held in one central government (they hold all power)
* The levels maintain order/ put laws to use
*Pros: No 1 person has all the power
*Cons: Local officials have no input
Confederal System
*Power
*Levels
*Pros
*Cons
*Power comes from the states
(Independent states write to accomplish common goals)
*Each state is represented in the central government
*Pros: States wanted rights
* Cons: There is no strong central government
Federal System
*Power
*Levels
*Pros
*Cons
* The power is evenly split between federal, state, and local governments
(People elect representatives)
* The levels all make laws, elect officials, and create agencies.
*Pros; evenly distributed power
*Cons: It's hard to get things done quickly
Why does the U.S. Government use a republican form of government instead of direct democracy?
Because we would have less participation in government, no one would get along, and it would be too time consuming.
Capitalism Principles
1. Private Ownership
2. Free-market economy that allows human choice
3. Competition between producers
4. Ability to make a profit
5. Laissez-Faire Perspective
Communism Principles
1. everything is owned by the government
2. usually ruled by a dictator
3. called command economy because of governments total control over all economic and political activities.
4. It is often a failure
5. Citizens have fewer rights
Socialism Principles
1. Government owns or controls many factors of production
2. Nationalism of major industries
3. Equal distribution
4. Command Economy-government control
5. High taxation
6. Reduces concentration of wealth
Thomas Hobbes
An English philosopher who thought people were cruel, greedy, and selfish. Came up with the idea of the social contract: You give up the right to state of nature for an organized society and peace. * Thought that the best government was an absolute monarchy.
John Locke
Agrees with the social contract. English philosopher who thought people were basically good. Natural rights- life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness(right to own your own property). * Believed it was the governments job to protect natural rights
Baron De Montesquieu
Was not a fan of the absolute monarchy. He admired Britain's limited monarchy. He thought it protected people from tyranny. He had a pessimistic view of mankind, felt human nature was corrupt.
Jean-Jacque Rousseau
Thought that people were basically good. What makes people act bad are social evils- poverty and lack of power. Thought there were too many controls on people. Democracy *Society as a whole was better than the individual.
Which philosopher most greatly influenced Thomas Jefferson with their writings?
John Locke
What three ideas did Jefferson take from John Locke?
1. Unalienable Rights
2. Power from the people
3. The people can dissolve the government if it fails
Popular Sovereignty
* The governments authority to rule comes from the people.
Representative Democracy
People elect representatives to run the government for them.
Limited government
* The idea adopted from England; Government is to prevent the executive from gaining too much power.
Separation of Powers
* Dividing the power of government into 3 separate branches so that no one branch holds too much power.
Checks and Balances
* Used to prevent abuses of power, each branch can check the power of the other two.
Federalism
* Powers are divided amongst the levels of government. All levels of government have separation of power, elected officials, and collect taxes.
What are reserved powers?
Powers not listed in the constitution that only the states have.
What is the name of Missouri's legislative body?
General Assembly
What title is given to the chief executive of Missouri?
Governor
Who is the current governor of Missouri?
Jay Nixon
What is the difference between the state and federal budget?
*State Budget must be balanced
*Federal Budget can run a defecit
What are the main functions of each branch of government?
a. executive
b. legislative
c. judicial
a. Carry Out Laws
b. Make Laws
c. Interpret Laws
What vocabulary term indicates the order or people set to replace the president?
Order of Secession
Who are the first three people in line to replace the president?
1. Vice President
2. Speaker of the House
3. President Pro-Tempore of the Senate
What were the articles of confederation?
Document that organized our government. (First national government in America)
What caused the Articles of Confederation to fail?
* The lack of national currency and a weak national government.
Describe how the articles limited the national government.
No executive or judicial branch could tax or regulate trade.
What event demonstrated the need for a stronger national government?
Shays Rebellion
New Jersey Plan
A national government with a unicameral legislature based upon equality between the states and in which the states had a stronger role.
Virginia Plan
* A strong national government with a bicameral legislature based on each states population and with an executive and judiciary both chosen by a legislature.
The Great Compromise (AKA The Connecticut Compromise)
Combined the New Jersey and Virginia Plans and had a bicameral legislature.
How is representation determined in the House?
Population
How is representation determined in the Senate?
2 per state. (Based on equality)
What were the federalist papers?
* A series of 85 articles written to convince people to ratify the constitution. Explains how the constitution is supposed to work.
What did the federalists promise the antifederalists in order to ratify the constitution?
* A Bill of Rights
Define Tyranny
* Absolute rule by government that ignores rights and welfare of the people
What is the War Powers Act Resolution?
*The President can send out troops for up to 60 days without congressional approval
What is the main role of the Electoral College?
To select the president and vice president
Total # of electors in the Electoral College
538
# of electors needed to win presidency
270
Equation for # of state electors
Senators + House Members
Number of Missouri Electors?
10
How does the popular vote effect the presidential election?
Whichever candidate receives the most popular votes receives all of the electoral college votes for that state.
What are the three roles of the Vice President?
1. Handles Policy Issues
2. Serves as a spokesperson for the White House
3. President of the Senate
How many executive departments are there within the cabinet?
15
What is the title given to the leader of all but one department?
Secretary
Department of Defense
* Includes all branches of the military
*Provides military advice and leadership for the president
Department of State
* Leads the foreign affairs agency.
* Advises the president and helps implement the presidents foreign policy
* Secretary of State often meets with leaders of other countries
* Issues passports and visas
* Maintains diplomatic relations
Department of Treasury
*Creates and recommends fiscal policy
* Manufactures coins, currency, and postage stamps
* IRS and Secret Service are part of the Department of Treasury
Department of Homeland Security
* Most recently established Department (2002)
* Established to prevent terrorists attacks in the U.S.
* 22 federal agencies fall under homeland security
Fiscal Policy
* Using government expenditure and revenue collection to influence the economy
* Taxes and spending- done by the government
Monetary Policy
* Using a rate of interest to control money supply and stabilize the economy.
* Interest Rates- used by the Central Bank (Feds)
What is the bureaucracy?
All of the agencies and departments working for the government.
censorship
government telling you what you can and cannot say or read.
Libel/Libelous
Something false is written and damages someones reputation (Protected by the first amendment)
Slander
Threats/ something false is spoken (Also protected by the first amendment)
Poll Tax
A tax placed on voting (kept blacks or poor whites from voting)
Grandfather Clause
A law to descriminate against blacks ( If your grandfather couldn't vote you can't either.
JIm Crow Laws
Laws that descriminated segregation of blacks
Component
part of something
Unalienable Rights
Rights given to you for being human- they cannot be taken away.
Authoritarian
a government that has a very strong national government/ usually with a dictator
Incumbent
Someone who already holds office
Partisan
Of or dealing with a political party ( You always take a side of one political party)
Concurrent Powers
Powers shared between the national and state government
Reserved Powers
Powers set exclusively aside for the state
Expressed Powers
Powers specifically granted to the federal government
1st Amendment
Freedom of Press, Religion, Speech, Petition, and Assembly
2nd Amendment
Right to bear arms
3rd Amendment
Protects citizens from being forced to quarter soldiers
4th Amendment (Privacy Amendment)
Protects people from unreasonable searches and seizures
5th Amendment
Protects people accused of crimes
6th Amendment
Ensures the right to a trial by jury in criminal cases
7th Amendment
Guarantees the right to trial by jury in civil cases
8th Amendment
(ONLY FOR CRIMINALS) Prohibits excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment
9th Amendment
Protects the rights of citizens not specifically listed in the constitution
10th Amendment
Gives powers to the states that are not listed in the constitution
11th Amendment
Citizens cannot sue a state in a federal court
12th Amendment
Changed the election procedure for the president and vice president
13th Amendment
Abolished Slavery
14th Amendment
Defines citizenship (granted to former slaves) and assures equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
Prohibits restrictions on voting based on race or color
16th Amendment
gives the power to levy an income tax
17th Amendment
Direct election of senators
18th Amendment
Prohibits the manufacture, sale, or consumption of alcohol
19th Amendment
Women's Suffrage
20th amendment
Changed the date that the president and congress members take office. ( January 3rd)
21st Amendment
Repeals the 18th Amendment
22nd Amendment
Two-term limit on the president
23rd Amendment
Gives the residents of Washington D.C. the right to vote
24th Amendment
Abolished Poll Taxes
25th Amendment
Provided a clear presidential secession
26th Amendment
Changed the voting age to 18
27th Amendment
Congressional Raises take effect after the next election (paychecks won't increase until after the election)