How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

54 terms

Biology Barrons Final

STUDY
PLAY
Four classes of Organic Compounds
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
-quick energy
-three classes of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
Monosaccharides
-C6H12O6
-isomers of each other (same formula different arrangement)
Disaccharides
-C12H22O11
-Maltose (Glucose + Glucose)
-Sucrose (Glucose + Sucrose)
-Lactose (Glucose + Galactose)
Polysaccharides
-cellulose, starch, chitin, glycogen
-3 or more monosaccharides
Lipids
-consists of one glycerol, and three fatty acids
-saturated (bad) and unsaturated fats (good)
-storage
Proteins
-consists of polypeptides consisting of amino acids
-growth and repair
-enzymes = proteins
Enzymes
-large proteins
-lowers activation energy
-efficiency is affected by temperature and pH
Inducted-fit model
-describes how enzymes work
substrate
-chemical that enzymes work on
Nucleic Acids
-DNA and RNA
-made up of nucleotides
-consists of phosphate, 5 carbon sugar, and nitrogenous base
DNA
-adenine,cytosine,guanine,thymine
RNA
-adenine,cytosine,guanine,uracil
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
-invented first microscope
Plant and Animal Cells
-both have ribosomes and mitochondria
Nucleus
-surrounded by selectively permeable double membrane
Nucleolus
-prominent region inside of the nulceus of a cell that is not dividing
-ribosomes are synthesized here
Ribosome
-site of protein synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum
-system of membrane chanels that traverse the cytoplasm
-Rough ER = site of protein synthesis
-Smooth ER connects rough ER to Golgi app., detox, carb. metabolism
Golgi Apparatus
-flattened sacs (pancakes)
-modify, store, and package substances produced in rough endoplasmic reticulum
Lysosome
-site of intracellular digestion
-plant cells do not have lysosomes
Mitochondrion
-site of cellular respiration
-all cells have mitochondria
-contain own DNA and can self-replicate
-have folded inner membranes called cristae
Vacuole
-stores substances for the cell
Vesicles
-tiny vacuoles (storage)
Plastids
-found only in plants and algae
-Chloroplasts
-Leucoplasts
-Chromoplasts
Chloroplasts
-sites of protein synthesis
-type of plastid
Leucoplasts
-store starch
Chromoplasts
-store carotenoid pigments (for coloring)
Cytoskeleton
-complex network f protein filaments that extends throughout the cytoplasm and gives the cell its shape and enables it to move
-microtubules
-microfilaments
microtubules
-thick hollow tubes that make up the cilia, flagella and spindle fibers
microfilaments
-made of protein actin and help support the shape of the cell
plasma membrane
-consists of a phospholipid bilayer
Passive transport
-movement of molecules down a concentration gradient from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
-diffusion or osmosis
Simple Diffusion
-movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
Facilitated Diffusion
-relies on special protein membrane channels to assist in transporting specific substances across a membrane
osmosis
-diffusion of water across a membrane
-water flows to gradient of high solute concentration
active transport
-movement of molecules against a gradient
-requires ATP
Exocytosis
-(active transport
-active release of molecules from a cell
Pinocytosis
-uptake of large0dissolved molecules (active transport)
-encloses them in vesicles
PHagoctosis
-engulfing of large particles by pseudopods (active transport)
Receptor mediated Endocytosis
-enables cell to take up large quantities of very specific substances
Mitosis
-functions in growth and repair of body cells
-2 daughter cells w/ same chromosome number as the parent cell
-each daughter cell is diploid (2n) just like parent cell
Meiosis
-occurs in sexually reproducing organisms
-produces gametes with half chromosome number of parent cell
-monoploid or haploid (n)
chromosome
-highly coiled and condensed strand of DNA
-replicated chromosome consists of 2 sister chromatids
centromere
-specialized region that holds the two sister chromatids together
Five major stages of cell division
G1, S, G2 (interphase), mitosis, cytokinesis
Interphase
-chromosomes replicate in preparation for cell division
-90% of cells life
-in mitosis and meiosis
Prophase
-2nd stage of mitosis
-strands of chromosomes begin to condense and become visible
-nucleoli disappears
-spindle fibers begin to form in cytoplasm
-centrioles begin to migrate to the poles
-nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate
Metaphase
-chromosomes line up single file located on the equator
-centrosomes are at opposite sides of cell
-spindle fibers run from centrosomes to centromeres of chromosomes
Anaphase
-centromeres of each chromosome separate & spindle fibers begin to pull the sister chromosomes apart
Telophase
-chromosomes cluster at opposite ends of the cell and nuclear membrane reforms
-super coiled chromosomes begin to unravel and return to original state
-nuclear membrane reforms
Cytokinesis
-division of cytoplasm
-in animal cells, cleavage furrow forms
-in plant cells, cell plate forms down the middle of the cell
Meiosis I
-called reduction division
-synapsis and crossing over occur
-during synapsis chromosomes pair up precisly with their homologue so that crossing over can occur
-crossing over is the process in which homologous chromatids exchange genetic material
-homologous chromosomes then separate
-chromosomes line up randomly on equatorial plate
-each resulting gamete is genetically unique
Meiosis II
-sister chromatids separate
-division maintains same number of chromosomes
-completes the goal of meiosis producing four genetically unique cells from mother cell