54 terms

Biology Barrons Final

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Four classes of Organic Compounds
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
-quick energy
-three classes of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
Monosaccharides
-C6H12O6
-isomers of each other (same formula different arrangement)
Disaccharides
-C12H22O11
-Maltose (Glucose + Glucose)
-Sucrose (Glucose + Sucrose)
-Lactose (Glucose + Galactose)
Polysaccharides
-cellulose, starch, chitin, glycogen
-3 or more monosaccharides
Lipids
-consists of one glycerol, and three fatty acids
-saturated (bad) and unsaturated fats (good)
-storage
Proteins
-consists of polypeptides consisting of amino acids
-growth and repair
-enzymes = proteins
Enzymes
-large proteins
-lowers activation energy
-efficiency is affected by temperature and pH
Inducted-fit model
-describes how enzymes work
substrate
-chemical that enzymes work on
Nucleic Acids
-DNA and RNA
-made up of nucleotides
-consists of phosphate, 5 carbon sugar, and nitrogenous base
DNA
-adenine,cytosine,guanine,thymine
RNA
-adenine,cytosine,guanine,uracil
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
-invented first microscope
Plant and Animal Cells
-both have ribosomes and mitochondria
Nucleus
-surrounded by selectively permeable double membrane
Nucleolus
-prominent region inside of the nulceus of a cell that is not dividing
-ribosomes are synthesized here
Ribosome
-site of protein synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum
-system of membrane chanels that traverse the cytoplasm
-Rough ER = site of protein synthesis
-Smooth ER connects rough ER to Golgi app., detox, carb. metabolism
Golgi Apparatus
-flattened sacs (pancakes)
-modify, store, and package substances produced in rough endoplasmic reticulum
Lysosome
-site of intracellular digestion
-plant cells do not have lysosomes
Mitochondrion
-site of cellular respiration
-all cells have mitochondria
-contain own DNA and can self-replicate
-have folded inner membranes called cristae
Vacuole
-stores substances for the cell
Vesicles
-tiny vacuoles (storage)
Plastids
-found only in plants and algae
-Chloroplasts
-Leucoplasts
-Chromoplasts
Chloroplasts
-sites of protein synthesis
-type of plastid
Leucoplasts
-store starch
Chromoplasts
-store carotenoid pigments (for coloring)
Cytoskeleton
-complex network f protein filaments that extends throughout the cytoplasm and gives the cell its shape and enables it to move
-microtubules
-microfilaments
microtubules
-thick hollow tubes that make up the cilia, flagella and spindle fibers
microfilaments
-made of protein actin and help support the shape of the cell
plasma membrane
-consists of a phospholipid bilayer
Passive transport
-movement of molecules down a concentration gradient from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
-diffusion or osmosis
Simple Diffusion
-movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
Facilitated Diffusion
-relies on special protein membrane channels to assist in transporting specific substances across a membrane
osmosis
-diffusion of water across a membrane
-water flows to gradient of high solute concentration
active transport
-movement of molecules against a gradient
-requires ATP
Exocytosis
-(active transport
-active release of molecules from a cell
Pinocytosis
-uptake of large0dissolved molecules (active transport)
-encloses them in vesicles
PHagoctosis
-engulfing of large particles by pseudopods (active transport)
Receptor mediated Endocytosis
-enables cell to take up large quantities of very specific substances
Mitosis
-functions in growth and repair of body cells
-2 daughter cells w/ same chromosome number as the parent cell
-each daughter cell is diploid (2n) just like parent cell
Meiosis
-occurs in sexually reproducing organisms
-produces gametes with half chromosome number of parent cell
-monoploid or haploid (n)
chromosome
-highly coiled and condensed strand of DNA
-replicated chromosome consists of 2 sister chromatids
centromere
-specialized region that holds the two sister chromatids together
Five major stages of cell division
G1, S, G2 (interphase), mitosis, cytokinesis
Interphase
-chromosomes replicate in preparation for cell division
-90% of cells life
-in mitosis and meiosis
Prophase
-2nd stage of mitosis
-strands of chromosomes begin to condense and become visible
-nucleoli disappears
-spindle fibers begin to form in cytoplasm
-centrioles begin to migrate to the poles
-nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate
Metaphase
-chromosomes line up single file located on the equator
-centrosomes are at opposite sides of cell
-spindle fibers run from centrosomes to centromeres of chromosomes
Anaphase
-centromeres of each chromosome separate & spindle fibers begin to pull the sister chromosomes apart
Telophase
-chromosomes cluster at opposite ends of the cell and nuclear membrane reforms
-super coiled chromosomes begin to unravel and return to original state
-nuclear membrane reforms
Cytokinesis
-division of cytoplasm
-in animal cells, cleavage furrow forms
-in plant cells, cell plate forms down the middle of the cell
Meiosis I
-called reduction division
-synapsis and crossing over occur
-during synapsis chromosomes pair up precisly with their homologue so that crossing over can occur
-crossing over is the process in which homologous chromatids exchange genetic material
-homologous chromosomes then separate
-chromosomes line up randomly on equatorial plate
-each resulting gamete is genetically unique
Meiosis II
-sister chromatids separate
-division maintains same number of chromosomes
-completes the goal of meiosis producing four genetically unique cells from mother cell