APUSH Chapter 12
Terms in this set (31)
war of 1812
(1812-1815) fought between the U.S. and the British. The U.S., under President James Madison, was upset with Britain for attacking American ships and impressing American citizens into the British navy, among other issues. The war was fought largely at sea and on the east coast of North America. Neither side was able to win a clear victory, and the Treaty of Ghent ended the war in 1815
Battle of Put-in-Bay
Over this course of this battle nine vessels of the United States Navy built at Presque Isle and under the command of Oliver Perry defeated and captured six vessels of Great Britain's Royal Navy. This ensured American control of the lake for the rest of the war, and in turn all of Lower Canada was abandoned for the Americans (including Detroit) as well as the death of Tecumseh during the battle of thames
battle of thames
-A decisive American victory in the War of 1812. It took place on October 5, 1813, near present-day Chatham, Ontario. It resulted in the death of the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, and the destruction of the Native American coalition that he led.
oliver hazard perry
1785-1819 Commander of the United States naval fleet that defeated the British in the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812. After winning the battle, Perry sent the following message: "We have met the enemy and they are ours."
William Henry Harrison
"Old Tippecanoe"; nominated as the Whig's presidential candidate for 1840. swept the electoral college 234 to 60; immediately after taking office in 1841, convened Congress in special session to pass the Whig program: repeal of the independent treasury system, a new national bank, and a higher protective tariff; caught pneumonia at his inauguration and died within the month, 9th president. Proven vote getter. Military hero who expressed few opinions on national issues and had not political record to defend.
Battle of Bladensburgh
American Defeat in war of 1812 in Maryland. This allowed the Brits to enter Washingon (James Madison and wife fled to Virginia), and burn the whitehouse
British general who commanded land forces at the battle of Bladensburg in 1814, defeating General Winder and opening the road to Washington, which he burned, sparing many private residences. was killed in the assault of Baltimore
Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland, is a coastal star-shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy in Chesapeake Bay September 13-14, 1814. It was during the bombardment of the fort that Francis Scott Key was inspired to write "The Star-Spangled Banner"
Francis Scott Key
A washington lawyer who watched the all-night battle at Fort McHenry and showed his pride by writing what became the national anthem
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; dxue to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost. the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Seventh president of the United States; was born on March 15, 1767 in New Lancaster County, South Carolina. He became a general in 1812 and was the leader in the Battle of New Orleans. Two weeks after he won the battle, the diplomats returning from Britain came back with a treaty; thus, the Americans believed that the British had once again surrendered and a new era of nationalism came. He ran for office. reason he won: prices of land ownership dropped in many states making more blue collar men eligible to vote. New Orleans hero. Strongly identified with the "common man". Born in poverty and no college education, built a successful career for himself in Tennessee as a lawyer. As president he introduced the spoils system. Also ignored John Marshell and had the "indian removal act" which created the trail of tears.
Peace of Ghent
The US gave up their demands for the British to stop impressments and for the British to cede Canada to the US. In exchange, the British gave up their call for the creation of an Indian buffer state. (1) that called for a halt to the fighting (2) the return of all conquered territory (3) and the recognition of the pre-war boundary between Canada and the U.S.
Adams and Hamilton formed this based on the idea of expanding the powers of the central government to promote manufacturing.
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws - based on compact theory LIKE THE KENTUCKY AND VERGINIA RESOLUTIONS! They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America. This agreement was indicative of improving relations between the United States and Great Britain in the period following the War of 1812, treaty between the United States and Britain enacted in 1817 (signed April 28-29, 1817 in Washington, DC). The treaty provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained SIGNIFIGANCE?!
Convention of 1818
A manifestation of President Monroe's "diplomatic nationalism." This group resolved several points of contention. It: established the norther boundary of the Louisiana Purchase along the 49th parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the crest of the Rocky Mountains; called for joint occupation of Oregon by the United States and Britain; acknowledged American fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819
Treaty worked by Secretary of state JQ Adams.Treaty with Spain. Revolts in other Spanish colonies caused Spain to denude Florida of troops. Andrew Jackson invaded and wreaked havoc. This treaty gave us Florida if we respected the Spanish claim to Texas.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however. Also, persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
John C. Calhoun
7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century; was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification., 1832, had a convention in SC to nullify the tariff of 1828 but also a new tariff law in 1832; passed a resolution forbidding the collection of tariffs within the state
1808 and 1812; Democratic-Republican; notable events include the War of 1812, let the charter of the First Bank of the United States expire, but realized it was difficult to finance a war without the bank, so he chartered the 2nd Bank of the United States
1816 and 1820; Democratic-Republican; his time in office is described as "The Era of Good Feelings," notable events include the Missouri Compromise, the establishment of the Monroe Doctrine, the acquisition of Florida from Spain, and several internal improvements such as The Cumberland Road
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Appointed by John Adams (1801) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court- was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the state's rights Jeffersonians. (Served 30 days under Federalist administration and 34 years under the Jeffersonians and their successors) The Federalists died out but Marshall continued to hand down Federalist decisions. IMPORTANT ACT- Although he dismissed the Marbury suit ( 1801) to avoid direct political showdown, he said that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was unconstitutional.
McCollough vs Maryland
US supreme court decision in which chief Justice John Marshall holding that Maryland could not tax the second bank of the united states, supported the authority of the federal government versus the states
Dartmouth College vs Woodward
Marshall ruled that a school's charter that had been granted by King George was to be upheld because it was a contract. The state couldn't interfere. NH had tried to change the school's charter to make it a public university. Set precedent for protecting businesses from state governments. Example of federal law surpassing state law.
Gibbons vs Ogden
(1824) This suit grew out of an attempt of New York to grant to a private company a monopoly of waterborne commerce, especially steamboat, between New York and New Jersey. Marshall, not surprisingly, stated that the Constitution declared that Congress alone had the control of interstate commerce. This a blow at states' rights while increasing the power of the federal government.
Panic of 1819
1st major financial panic since the Constitution was ratified; marked the end of economic expansion and featured deflation (value of US money going down), depression, bank failures, foreclosures on western farms, unemployment, a slump in agriculture and manufacturing, and overcrowded debtor's prisons. Also risky lending practices of the state and local banks led to overspeculation on lands in west- the national bank tightened its credit lending policies and eventually forced these state and local banks to foreclose mortgages on farms, which resulted in bankruptcies and prisons full of debtors.
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
A commander of an American fleet on Lake Champlain that fought near Plattsburgh on floating slaughterhouses; the Americans were nearly defeated, but his nifty techniques forced the British to retreat; this heroic naval battle saved New York from conquest, New England from disaffection, and the Union from dissolution.
American naval officer known for his heroic deeds in the Tripolitan War, the War of 1812, and skirmishes against the Barbary pirates. He burnt his boat so the pirates could not use it.
Czar Alexander I
Leader who offered to mediate between America and Britain at the end of the War of 1812