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First aid

Immediate care given to a victim of injury or sudden illness until more advanced care can be obtained.

First responder

A person trained in emergency care that may be called on to give such care as a routine part of his or her job.

Good Samaritan laws

Laws that protect people who willingly give first aid without accepting anything in return.


Damage that occurs when the body is subjected to an external force. such as a blow, a fall, a collision, an electrical current or temperature extremes.

Life-threatening emergency

An illness or injury that impairs a victim's ability to circulate oxygenated blood to all the parts of his or her body.

Non-life threatening emergency

A situation that does not have an immediate impact on a victim's ability to circulate oxygenated blood, but still requires medical attention.

Types of Emergencies

Two types......Sudden illness and injury.....

Sudden illness

a physical condition that requires immediate medical attention. Some EXAMPLES include: heart attack and a severe allergic reaction.


is damage to the body from an external force, such as a broken bone from a fall.

Citizen Responders

Recognizing that an emergency exists. Deciding to act. Taking action by calling 911 or the local emergency number. Giving care until medical help arrives.

Barriers to action

The presence of bystander.......Uncertainty about the victim......The nature of the injury or illness....Fear of disease trransmission....Fear of not knowing what to do or of doing something wrong...Being unsure of when to call 911.


you can ask them to call for , meet and direct the ambulance, keep the area free of unnecessary traffic,, or help you give first,, you might send them for blankets or other supplies, they may even have valuable information about what happened or may know the victim's medical history. Bystanders can also help comfort the victim and others at the scene.

Overcoming barriers

Thinking about these barriers and mentally preparing yourself to overcome them will help you respond more confidently when an actual emergency occurs.


Permission to give care, given by the victim to the rescuer.

Emergency action steps:

Three basic steps you should take in any emergency: CHECK-CALL-CARE-


Is the scene safe..What happened...How many victims are there...Are bystanders available to help


Unconsciousness......Trouble breathing.....No signs of Life(normal breathing or movement) and, for Children and Infants, no pulse......Severe bleeding .... make to get CONSENT form conscious adult before you begin to give care on conscious adult




Heart beats randomly, uneven

4-6 minuets

Time after oxygen stops coming to the brain, and brain dies.

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