37 terms

8 Science Ch 4 Review

8th Grade Science, Chapter 4 Review: The Rock Cycle
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intrusive igneus rocks
form below the Earth's surface; form deep inside Earth
rocks
can provide materials to make other rocks; can form other rocks; can be changed by forces at Earth's surface; a mixture of minerals, organic matter, volcanic glass, or other materials
the rock cycle
shows how one rock changes into another
weathering and erosion
change sedimentary rocks into sediments
igneus rocks
form from magma and lava when it cools; formed from basaltic, andesitic or granitic magma
magma
the molten material deep inside Earth from which igneus rocks are formed; rises toward the surface of the Earth because it is less dense than surrounding solid rock
foliated rocks
are distinguished or are known for their layers
extrusive igneus rocks
formed from lava that cools quickly; formed at Earth's surface
metamorphic rocks
formed with the presence of hot, watery fluids or formed with heat; foliated or nonfoliated; can undergo an exchange of atoms between minerals; can form new, bigger minerals
quartz
a mineral
granite
a rock
sedimentary rocks
formed when loose materials become pressed together or when minerals form from solutions; materials are often held together with natural cements
radioactive elements
cause, in part, the pressure and heat that produces magma
detrital sedimentary rocks
made from broken fragments of other rocks; named according to the shape and size of the sediments
scoria and basalt
fine-grained extrusive rocks
large
crystals that form in slowly cooled magma produce these mineral grains
matter
changes that take place in rocks never create or destroy this
basaltic igneus rocks
rich in iron and magnesium
granitic igneus rocks
lower in density than basaltic rocks; light-colored
nonfoliated metamorphic rocks
show metamorphic change that involves growth in the size of the mineral grains
foliated metamorphic rocks
show layers of dark minerals alternating with layers of light minerals
sandstone
a detrital sedimentary rock made from sand
organic
sedimentary rocks formed from the remains of once-living things
coal
a kind of organic sedimentary rock
weathering
the process in which rock is exposed to air, water, or ice and breaks into pieces
limestone
a kind of chemical sedimentary rock
compaction
the process in which pressure from the upper layers of sediment pushes down on the lower layers, causing the sediments to stick together and form solid rock
cementation
the process in which minerals hold sediments together, like glue, making a detrital sedimentary rock
erosion
the movement of weathered material
slate
a kind of foliated metamorphic rock
marble
a kind of nonfoliated metamorphic rock
rock salt
a sedimentary rock
obsidian
an igneous rock
gneiss
a metamorphic rock
granitic magma
silica-rich, thick magma; light-colored rocks with lower density form from this; large-grained, light-colored rocks that form deep inside Earth are composed of this
basaltic magma
dense, heavy, dark-colored igneous rocks form from this; lava flowing from volcanoes in Hawaii is this
andesitic magma
rocks that form from this have mineral compositions between those of granitic and basaltic magma