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Landmass that included India, Pakistan and Bangladesh


Seasonal winds that controlled India's climate

Harappan Civilization

-Indus Valley Civilization, home to many archaeological discoveries
-Houses had bathrooms

Planned Cities

-Built on mud brick to protect from flooding
-Advanced plumbing and sewage systems
-Houses were layered on a grid system
-Strong geometric and architectural skills

Writing System

-Evidence showed developed writing system
-Could not be decoded

Environmental Challenges

-Unpredictable floods
-Rivers change course
-Cycle of wet and dry seasons = unpredictable due to monsoons


-Indus River linked to sea = connected ancient civilizations
-Thriving trade between regions
-River gave fertile soil (great farming)
-Cotton was popular crop (rare)

Plumbing in Mohenjo-Daro

-Every house had a bathroom and toilet
-Pipes connected each house to underground sewage system

Harappan Language

Unable to decipher
Believed to resemble objects and sounds

Harappan Culture

Strong bond between culture and religion
Weak social class division
Animals were an important part of the culture

Harappan Religion

Believed to be a theocracy
No temple found
Artifacts linked to Hindu culture

Harappan Trade

Indus River provided excellent transportation of trade
Moved goods to Persia and Caspian Sea
Cotton was a popular trade item because few civilizations knew how to grow it
River allowed connection between other civilizations

Decline of Indus Valley

1750 - building quality declined
shifts in tectonic plates brought natural disasters and dried rivers

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