144 terms

HDFS Exam #3


Terms in this set (...)

emerging adulthood
a distinct period of development that differs from adolescence and young adulthood.
emerging adulthood (age range)
takes place between 18-25 years of age and is characterized by independent role exploration and frequent change.
1970: typical 21 year old (4)
married or about to be married;caring for a child or planning a pregnancy;done with education;settled into a job or role of full-time mother
today: typical 21 year old (3)
marriage and parenthood - not for another 5 years;education may last more years;will experience job change
why have these changes occurred? (5)
invention of birth control;sexual revolution of 60s and 70s;increase in years devoted to higher education;change in women's role;change in how young people view becoming an adult
love: adolescents
dating primarily recreational/experimental
love: emerging adults
dating a serious serious search for a partner
love: young adults
75% married with children
work/education: adolescents (3)
service jobs;purpose of work to support leisure activities;95% enrolled in school
work/education: emerging adults (3)
laying groundwork for adult occupation;60% go on to higher education;32% complete 4 or more years of college
work/education: young adults (2)
settled into career;only 10% involved in higher education
age of instability...changing the plan (4)
changing major in college;dropping out of college;dissatisfaction with work;romantic relationships
moving...emerging adults have the highest rate of residential change of any age group - why do emerging adults move so much? (9)
going to college;wanting to move away from parents;new job;graduation from college;dropping out of college;graduate school;changing roommates;wanting to live with significant other;breaking up with significant other
examining world views
enter emerging adulthood with world views learned in childhood and adolescence
college students are exposed to greater diversity and, as a result, change world views
emerging adults who do not attend college are as likely as college students to examine existing world views and from their own set of beliefs and vaules
"I am very sure that some day I will get to where I want to be in life"
_____% of _____-_____ year olds agree with this
96% 18-24
top three criteria for achieving adulthood
accepting responsibility for yourself;making independent decisions;being financially independent
open, supportive, and tender relationship without the fear of losing one's self; able to put aside self at times because self is secure
self-absorption, fear of losing one's self, unwillingness to compromise
friendships come before romantic relationships, in adolescence female friendships are
"face to face" with emphasis on self-disclosure
friendships come before romantic relationships, in adolescence male friendships are
"side by side" with emphasis on cooperation, leadership, and competition
friendships come before romantic relationships, in adulthood
maless demonstrate more competitiveness, less agreement, and less self-disclosure than females
self-disclosure levels in friendships
lowest: male/male
higher: male/female
highest: female/female
in heterosexual marriages, _____ most often name their _____ as their best friend
males; wives
_____ most often name another _____ as their best friend (not their _____)
women; female; husband
divorce is more emotionally devastating for _____
identity status and intimacy: foreclosed
avoid conflict
identity status and intimacy: diffused
difficulty with commitment, adopt partner's identity, lack depth
identity status and intimacy: moratorium
still figuring it out
identity status and intimacy: achieved
most successful
_____ are more likely to enter into a committed relationship AFTER _____ _____ are made
males; career plans
attachment and intimacy (research of Phil Shaver, UC Davis) adult attachment interview: securely attached
(55%) feel close to others, can depend on them
attachment and intimacy (research of Phil Shaver, UC Davis) adult attachment interview: insecure anxious
(20%) not trusting, cling to partner, jealous, overly dependent
attachment and intimacy (research of Phil Shaver, UC Davis) adult attachment interview: insecure avoidant
(25%) uncomfortable being close, find intimacy unpleasant, little emotional expression
to feel and know I am being real, genuine, and honest in relationships
to be attuned to other's feelings and thoughts
how do we foster healthy relationships?
mutual empathy (emotional responsivity)
mutual authenticity (relational honesty)
average duration of a marriage
nine years
average age at marriage: 1950
males: just under 23 years
females: just above 20 years
average age at marriage: presently
males: just above 27 years
females: just above 25 years
Andrew Cherlin: "The Marriage-Go-Round: The State of Marriage and the Family in America Today"
Americans get married more, divorced more, and have more live-in partners than people in any other Western Industrialized Nation
Children who have experienced multiple transitions at home (4)
have more behavior problems in school;have sex at an earlier age;less likely to graduate from high school;more likely to have a first child outside of marriage
children born in America are far more likely to see their parents' _____ _____ _____ than are children in most other countries
partnerships break up
Cherlin's advice
myths about marriage
1. conflict will ruin your marriage
2. affairs are the main cause of divorce
3. men are not biologically made for marriage
4. the best marriages are when couples have the same interests
***what matters is friendship and mutual respect
what helps to make a marriage work?
1. solving solvable problems
2. letting your partner influence you
3. creating a shared meaning of marriage
4. turn toward each other rather than away
an unhappy marriage increases and individual's risk of getting sick by _____% and an even shorten a person's life by _____ years
30%; 4 years
Pew Research Center (ranked in order) (9)
being faithful;happy sexual relationship;sharing household chores;adequate income;good housing;shared religious beliefs;shared interests;having children;agreement on politics
Advantages of Parenthood
giving and receiving warmth and affection
experiencing the stimulation and fun that children add to life
being accepted as a responsible and mature member of the community
having someone to provide care in old age
gaining a sense of accomplishment and creativity from helping children grow
learning to become less selfish and to sacrifice
having someone carry on after one's own death
having offspring who help with parents' work or add their own income to the family's resources
Pew Research Survey Results: in 1950's, 60's, and 70's the consistent top two reasons for choosing to marry were
"having children and creating stability"
Pew Research Survey Results: present, the top reason for choosing to marry is for
"personal happiness and fulfillment"
Pew Research Survey Results: the percentage of Americans who consider children as very important to a successful marriage
has dropped from 65% in the 1990s to 40% in 2011
Pew Research Survey Results: sharing household chores has moved up in importance from
47% in 1990 to 62% presently
Pew Research Survey Results: career women's martial satisfaction decreases when
marriage involves an unequal division of labor
sexual socialization
the process of learning how to be a sexual person and how to have sexual relationships through the modeling of observed behavior from peers, family, and media
_____ is top contributor to sexual activity today
_____ is the top contributor from media sources to sexual socialization today
History of Pornography in Modern America
Free Love Movement
History of Pornography in Modern America: 1968
US President's Commission on obscenity and pornography; no link between porn use and negative attitudes toward women; study received lots of publicity
History of Pornography in Modern America: 1974
Larry Flynt - first "Pink Shots" - first images of vulva in print
History of Pornography in Modern America: 1976
Meese Report for the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography; yes link between porn use and negative attitudes toward women; study received no publicity
images that have as their focus the depiction of mutually pleasurable sexual expression between people who have enough power to be there by positive choice...the have no sexist or violent connotations and are hinged on equal power dynamics between the individual and the camera
images that portray acts of submission or violence by the positioning of models or use of props; they imply unequal power relationships by differential dress, costuming, poisoning, or by setting up viewer as a voyeur
pro-porn feminists
pornography will liberate women to appreciate their bodies, enjoy sex, and not feel guilty about it; pornography celebrates our sexuality
anti-porn feminists
pornography is degrading to women, because if objectifies them; pornography users will soon objectify women, not just porn stars and sexual assault will become rampart
porn usage after high-speed internet
1985: 5 times a year
2005: 5 times a week
four A's
accessible: anyone who has access to internet has access to porn
affordable: most internet porn is free or cheap
anonymous: you can purchase porn without anyone knowing
addictive: dopamine transmission and tolerance producing
pornographic websites
2000: 16,000
2005: 170,000+
2013: 5,689,000+
market research
the "porn formula"
foreplay = fellatio (more than 30 min)
NOT cunnilings (less than 10 min)
no committed partners or condoms
fake female orgasms - real ones take too long
money shot - male ejaculates on female face at end of scene
100% of scenes - male orgasms
less than 1% of scenes - female orgasm
female competitive characteristics
$$$=18, $$=younger than 25, $=younger than 30
breast augmentation
brazilian wax
size 6 or smaller
tan and blonde
male competitive characteristics
not age, weight, skin, or hair restrictions
$$$=large penis
women and pornography; women use sexual media the resembles
a romantic relationship; erotic stories or romantic novels, chatting or cybersex
women and pornography; doesn't portray female _____/_____
women and pornography; experimental research has shown that pornography causes women to _____-_____ and _____-_____
self-sexualize and self-objectify
women and pornography; _____ _____ _____ are associated with pornography use in women
body image issues
how does a women join the porn industry?
the majority of women that enter the porn industry have been sexually abused as children, and that trauma has manifested into a sexual addiction
the majority of women stay in the industry because of drug addiction
violent content in non-vivolent porn
top non-violent porn dads and websites
verbal aggression (48.7% of scenes)
insulting 48.8% - threatening 1%
using coercive language 1.6% - physical aggression 88.2%
slapping 41% forced gagging 53.9% choking 27.9%
arousal to violent content: who feels more aroused?
men who weren't primed "violent" said and felt
"I was aroused"
was physically aroused
men who were primed "violent" sad and felt
"I was not aroused"
was physically aroused
exposure to internet porn is associated with
no using condoms; having more unprotected sex partners; not using contraception during intercourse; having a strong desire to conceive; endorsement of the rape myth; testing positive for chlamydia; lower sex satisfaction in emerging adulthood; disordered eating; self-objectificatio; endorsement of objectification of women
the brain on porn
releases neurotransmitters: serotonin, adrenaline, testosterone, dopamine, endorphin
pornography compulsion
some report going emotionally numb while using pornography and do so in order to check out or avoid the stressful aspects of their lives; heightened level of stimulation make real sex less exciting, highs become harder to achieve
pornography dependent
think about porn to keep aroused with spouse; dependent on hard-core images for orgasm
viagra study: "_____" occurred when intercourse was attempted with his partner and not while masturbating to pornography
impotence; under 50: 62%, under 40: 73%, under 30: 91%
working with youth (residential care, BBBS, etc)
ask them if they've ever been exposed to porn, give them resources if they're old enough, if you see talk of sexual degradation/inappropriate interaction with opposite sex: ask "where did you learn to communicate that way?"
marital and family therapy: asses pornography use right away
how often do you use internet pornography?, is your partner aware of the extent of your pornography use?, how does your partner's pornography use make you feel?, do you feel like pornography is impacting your sex life?, have you gone a month without using pornography?
pornography and romantic relationships
men are more critical of their partner's body if they are a pornography user, porn leaves the impression that commitment=boring sex, devalues emotional intimacy that can be experienced during sex, women report significantly less foreplay during sex with men who use porn, the use is fantasizing about a pornographic image or scene, rather than sharing the intimate moment with a partner
pornography distress symptoms; porn user:
decreased sex drive with partner, lying, guilt, anxiety, emotional detachment, decreased respect
pornography distress symptoms; partner:
paranoid, decreased trust, anxiety, jealousy, insecurity, anger
couples who quit porn report
better communication, better emotional and sexual intimacy, more sexual satisfaction, mutual trust and respect, more foreplay
pornified mainstream media
sexualization of girls, sexualization of food, group sex in clothing advertisements, increase in degree of sexual explicitness over time
female sexuality: self objectification in correlational and experimental studies:
more objectification: lower self-esteem, more depression and disordered eating, more body dissatisfaction, decreased condom use, lower academic performance
disadvantages of parenthood
loss of freedom, being tied down; financial strain ($100,000 per child); family-work conflict-not enough time to meet both child-rearing and job responsibilities; interference with mother's employment opportunities and career progress; worries over children's health, safety, and well-being; risks of bringing up children in a world plagued by crime, war, and pollution; reduced time to spend with husband or wife; loss of privacy; fear that children will turn out badly, through no fault of one's own
"Five Good Things" that healthy relationships provide:
1. aliveness 2. empowerment 3. knowledge about other and self 4. sense of worth 5. sense of greater connection
diversity of adult lifestyles (3)
living single, cohabitation, gay/lesbian unions
living alone is on the rise, why? (4)
sexual freedom, technology (increased connections), longer life span, less desire to have kids
advantages of living alone (3)
pursue one's own schedule, make decisions independently, privacy and solitude
differences in why we cohabit and when we cohabit are associated with different outcomes: presently 70-90% of couples will live together before marriage
working-class couples move in together more _____ than _____-_____ couples
rapidly; middle-class
working-class couples cited _____ as main reason to cohabit
working-class couples were more likely to _____- than _____-_____ couples
divorce; middle-class
middle-class couples decision to move in together was more _____, and _____ _____
deliberate; thought out
middle-class couples are more likely to see cohabitation as a _____ _____ _____
step to marriage
serial cohabiters view cohabitation as a _____ and are more likely to _____ than middle-class couples
test; divorce
males are more likely than females to express
lower levels of committment
after moving in together, females were more likely to experience _____ _____ and more _____
weight gain; housework
reasons for cohabitation (4)
utilitarian (just makes more sense); intimate involvement; prelude to marriage; alternative to marriage
gay and lesbian unions are similar
on a day to day basis to heterosexual marriages
gay and lesbian unions are more _____ _____ _____ _____ and value _____
flexible in gender roles; monogamy
gay/lesbian couples are better at
communicating than the best heterosexual couples
divorced loyalties
kids are put in the position that if they give sympathy to one parent, they are disloyal to other
issues children have to deal with; adjustments: (4)
being forced to move;having 2 parents in 2 different homes;having to adjust to parents' new lovers;carving out a new relationship with father
wallerstein found that ____ begins earlier in divorced homes
age related reactions to divorce: preschool
fear of abandonment; confusion about visitation; difficulty in comforting self
age related reactions to divorce: 5-8 years
preoccupation with feelings of rejection, guilt, and loss; fear of being replaced; males have intense longing for father
age related reactions to divorce: 9-12 years
intense anger; psychosomatic symptoms; acting as caregivers to adults to exclusion of own needs
age related reactions to divorce: adolescence
worry about their own relationships; because they understand complexity, they have difficulty sorting through issues
age related reactions to divorce: merging adulthood
sleeper effect: anxiety about their own successful involvement in romantic relationships; females: preoccupied with betrayal; males: avoid relationships or are reserved in relationships
poor adjustment to divorce in adults (8)
lack of social support network; economic hardship; not wanting marriage to end; identity intensely tied to being married; history of psychological problems; viewing divorce as personal failure; presence of children's behavioral problems; continuing conflict with ex-spouse
poor adjustment to divorce in children (6)
continuing conflict between parents; decline in parental support; loss of contact with non-custodial parent; economic decline; decline in parental supervision; moving
children of divorce are at risk for (6)
depression; lower academic achievement; poor self-concept; decreased social competence; health problems; psychological problems
understand divorce: kids should be told _____ and _____
as soon as decision is reached and with their siblings (support each other)
helping children to cope with divorce: stability:
children need to stay doing what they were doing before; responsible people who still car for they kids; remain children
helping children to cope with divorce (5)
dealing with loss, dealing with anger, dealing with guilt, accepting permanence of divorce, taking a chance on love
mid-life development (40-65) generativity:
a capacity to care for others in a broader way than previous stages; to nurture that which outlives the self
mid-life development (40-65) stagnation:
being self-centered and self-indulgent with a lack of concern about contributing to the welfare of society
development tasks of adulthood (levinson) young-old:
finding positive meaning in being older
development tasks of adulthood (levinson) destruction-creation:
becoming more aware of how we have acted in a harmful way toward others and trying to correct it
development tasks of adulthood (levinson) masculinity-femininity:
becoming more androgynous
development tasks of adulthood (levinson) engagement-separation:
resolving issues of work and family
what makes up happy? (3)
family, meaningful philosophy of life, purposeful work
*money, when you are not in poverty, is not correlated with happiness
adult personality is stable over time
adult personality is a continual process of change and growth
do people change?
2000 40 year olds: 52% stayed the same, 39% changed a little, 9% changed a lot
five stable factors of personality (OCEAN)
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
openness (3)
imaginative or practical, variety or routine, independent or conforming
conscientiousness (3)
organized or disorganized, careful or careless, disciplined or impulsive
extraversion (3)
sociable or retiring, fun-loving or somber, affectionate or reserved
agreeableness (3)
soft hearted or ruthless, trusting or suspicious, helpful or uncooperative
neuroticism (3)
calm or anxious, secure or insecure, self-satisfied or self-pitying
in general...._____ and _____ increase in middle age, _____ declines and _____ and _____ either do not change or decrease slightly
agreeableness and conscientiousness; neuroticism; extraversion and openness
The Filter Theory of Mate Selection
Pool of all possible dating partners
propinquity, attractiveness, social background, consensus, complementary, readiness
Married couples
personality is responsive to _____ _____
life experiences; but that change exists within boundaries
these personality changes could be said to reflect a _____ _____ or _____
"settling down" or maturity