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Kinesiology Chapter 3: Articular System
Terms in this set (129)
This body plane passes through the body from front to back and divides the body into right and left parts.
Motions occurring in this plane are flexion and extension.
This body plane passes through the body from side to side and divides the body into front and back parts.
Motions occurring in this plane are abduction and adduction.
This body plane passes through the body horizontally and divides the body into top and bottom parts.
Rotation occurs in this plane.
________ attach muscles to bone.
Fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial
What are the three basic types of joints?
Which of the three basic types of joints provides for mobility?
Which of the three basic types of joints provides for stability?
The sagittal plane is associated with the ________ axis.
This axis runs through a joint from side to side.
Sagittal plane, frontal axis
Flexion/extension occur in this plane and axis.
The frontal plane is associated with the ________ axis.
This axis runs through a joint from front to back.
Frontal plane, sagittal axis
Abduction/adduction, radial/ulnar deviation, and eversion/inversion occur in this plane and axis.
The transverse plane is associated with the ________ axis.
This axis runs through a joint from top to bottom.
Transverse plane, vertical axis
Medial/lateral rotation, supination/pronation, right/left rotation, and horizontal abduction/adduction occur in this plane and axis.
A connection between two bones.
The most important function of a joint is to allow ________.
Help to bear the body's weight and to provide stability.
This main type of joint has a thin layer of fibrous periosteum between the two bones.
Synarthrosis, syndesmosis, and gomphosis
Name the three types of fibrous joints.
This type of fibrous joint has a thin layer of fibrous periosteum between the two bones.
Sutures of skull
Name an example of a synarthrosis joint.
This main type of joint provides shape and stability.
With this type of fibrous joint, there is essentially no motion between the bones.
This type of fibrous joint's purpose is to provide shape and strength.
The ends of bones involved in this type of fibrous joint are shaped to allow them to interlock.
A ligamentous fibrous joint.
There is a great deal of fibrous tissue, such as ligaments and interosseous membranes, holding this type of fibrous joint together.
A small amount of twisting or stretching movement can occur in this type of fibrous joint.
Tibiofibular joint at ankle
Name an example of a syndesmosis joint.
This type of fibrous joint's name is Greek for "bolting together."
This type of fibrous joint occurs between a tooth and the wall of its dental socket in the mandible and maxilla.
This type of fibrous joint's structure is referred to as peg-in-socket.
Teeth (in mandible/maxilla)
Name and example of a gomphosis joint.
This main type of joint has either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage between bones.
Name an example of a cartilaginous joint.
Cartilaginous joints are also called ________ joints.
This type of joint allows a small amount of motion, such as bending or twisting, and some compression.
This type of joint provides a great deal of stability.
This main type of joint has no direct union between the bone ends.
This main type of joint has a cavity filled with synovial fluid contained within a sleevelike capsule.
The ________ layer of the capsule is made up of a strong fibrous tissue that holds the joint together and supports and protects.
The ________ layer of the capsule is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid.
The synovial joint is also called a ________ joint because it allows free motion.
In a nonaxial joint, movement tends to be ________.
In a ________ joint the joint surfaces are relatively flat and glide over one another instead of one moving around the other.
Name an example of an amphiarthrodial joint.
Hip, elbow, knee
Name an example of a diarthrodial joint.
This type of joint has angular motion occurring in one plane around one axis.
Describe the shape of a nonaxial joint.
Describe the shape of a uniaxial joint.
Describe the shape of a biaxial joint.
Describe the shape of a triaxial joint.
Attach bone to bone.
This type of joint motion occurs in two different directions.
This type of joint motion occurs actively around all three axes.
Bands of fibrous connective tissue.
________ are flexible but not elastic.
Every synovial joint has this to surround and encase it.
A joint capsule can be described as a ________ as it helps hold the head of the humerus against the glenoid fossa.
The ________ layer of the joint capsule is usually reinforced by ligaments.
A thick, clear fluid resembling an egg white.
What does the synovial fluid lubricate?
Reduces friction, provides shock absorption, and major source of nutrition for articular cartilage
Name the three important roles of synovial fluid.
A dense, fibrous connective tissue that can withstand great amounts of pressure and tension.
Hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic
Name the three types of cartilage.
Also called articular cartilage.
This type of cartilage covers the ends of opposing bones within a synovial joint.
This type of cartilage provides a smooth articulating surface in all synovial joints.
This type of cartilage lacks its own blood or nerve supply.
________ cartilage cannot repair itself if damaged.
This type of cartilage acts as a shock absorber.
Shock absorption is especially important in ________ joints.
Labrum (of shoulder)
Name an example of fibrocartilage.
The ________ deepens the glenoid fossa.
This type of cartilage is designed to help maintain a structure's shape.
Name an example of where to find elastic cartilage.
________ provide the contractile force that causes joints to move.
Fibrous sleeves that surround the tendon when it is subject to pressure or friction, such as when it passes between muscles and bones or through a tunnel between bones.
A broad, flat tendinous sheet.
Aponeuroses are found in several places where ________ attach to bones.
Small, padlike sacs found around most joints.
These can be found in areas of excessive friction, such as between tendons and bony prominences.
As the abdominal muscles approach the midline from both sides, they attach to an aponeurosis called the ________.
Natural and acquired
Name the two types of bursa.
In an area that normally does not have excessive friction, this type of bursa can appear in the event that abnormal friction does occur.
"Student's bursa" (on finger from writing)
Name an example of an acquired bursa.
Planes of action
Fixed lines of reference along which the body is divided.
Whenever a plane passes through the midline of a part, whether it is sagittal, frontal, or transverse plane, it is referred to as a ________ plane because it divides the body into equal parts.
Center of gravity
The point where the three cardinal planes intersect each other is the ________
Second sacral vertebra
In the human body, the center of gravity is in the midline at about the level of, though slightly anterior to, the ________.
A point that run through the center of a joint around which a part rotates.
Joint movement occurs around an axis that is always ________ to its plane.
Number of planes
The degrees of freedom a joint has is determined by the ________ in which they can move.
Refers to the complete separation of the two articular surfaces of a joint.
A partial dislocation of a joint, usually occurs over a period of time.
A type of arthritis that is caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints.
A partial or complete tearing of ligament fibers.
This type of sprain involves the tearing of a few fibers with no loss of function.
With this type of sprain, there is partial tearing of the ligament with some loss of function.
With this type of sprain, the ligament is completely torn (ruptured) and no longer functions.
Refers to the overstretching of muscle fibers.
An inflammation of a tendon.
An inflammation of the synovial membrane.
An inflammation of the tendon sheath.
An inflammation of the joint capsule.
Which type of joint is the most typical of the joints of the appendicular skeleton?
Synovial, cartilaginous, fibrous
List the three main types of joints from most amount of motion permitted to least.
Do the joints of the axial or appendicular skeleton generally have more degrees of freedom?
The more degrees of freedom a joint has, the more likely its function is ________.
The axial skeleton functions to provide ________ for the ________ of the appendicular skeleton.
Name a joint that is referred to as a condyloid joint.
With this joint, the bones fit together like a horseback rider in a saddle.
Carpometacarpal (CMC) of thumb
Name an example of a saddle joint.
This type of fibrous joint has a great deal of fibrous tissue.
This main type of joint allows free motion but is not as stable as other joints.
This type of cartilage is present in both synovial and cartilaginous joints.
This type of cartilage fills in the gap between bones.
Since hyaline cartilage lacks its own blood and nerve supply, it gets it nutrition from ________.
Osteoporosis commonly occurs in who?
Name an example of a hinge joint.
Name an example of a plane joint.
Bone, ligament, capsule
Name the three joint structures.
Sheath of connective tissue that surrounds a muscle.
What structures may reinforce a joint capsule?
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