chapter 7 education

chapters 7,8,9 and 10
STUDY
PLAY
As an economic reconstructionist, Paulo Freire argued that
schools were tools of oppression and miseducation.
Studies on school size have determined that
smaller schools are more effective than larger schools because their students are more likely to pass their classes.
The current reform efforts in education can be traced to
A Nation at Risk.
At a recent school board meeting, a group of parents spoke out on the issue of the poor quality of the district's schools. They demanded the formation of charter schools that emphasized a rigorous, traditional curriculum and teacher-centered classrooms. These parents most closely resemble
zealots.
How many states currently allow open enrollment within their school districts?
40 or more
There tend to be fewer virtual schools at the elementary levels, primarily because
virtual schooling can deprive children of interactions needed for them to develop socialization skills.
The experiences that school districts had with the Edison Schools Inc.
did not have a visible effect on the privatization movement.
Jean and Stephen were concerned about the quality of education that their son, Galen, was receiving in the neighborhood school. They felt that the secular curriculum did not reflect their strong religious beliefs. As result, they chose to homeschool Galen for the rest of his educational career. The religiously-based motivation on the part of Galen's parents to homeschool him is indicative of
ideologues.
According to the survey by the Education Sector, most teachers
support educational reform.
Historically, which group has had the LEAST opportunity to give feedback in the school reform movement?
students
Which of the follow was true of dame schools?
Dame schools represented an early form of homeschooling.
The law that required every town of fifty households to appoint and pay for a teacher of reading and writing was the
Old Deluder Satan Act
Which of the following was NOT an educational norm that had its origins in colonial history?
standards for testing and assessment
Benjamin Franklin established the Franklin Academy to
offer education in practical subjects free of religious influence.
Horace Mann and Henry Barnard encountered stiff resistance to the common schools movement because business leaders
feared that the more children attended schools, the fewer laborers they would have for their factories and shops.
Upon its establishment in 1824, the Bureau of Indian Affairs
frequently relied on coercive measures to force Native Americans to attend reservation schools.
Men who chose to teach
came under intense scrutiny and suspicion by society.
Which of the following statements accurately describes the legal responsibility for education in the United States?
Education is a responsibility reserved to the states; there is no constitutional role for the federal government.
School districts received financial assistance to help educate students from low-income families as a result of
the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
Which of the following statements best characterizes trends in desegregation during the last two decades?
Court decisions have reduced school busing and firm racial set-asides in college, significantly increasing racial segregation in the nation's schools.
According to the tenets of progressive education, the most effective learning strategy involves the teacher
identifying student needs and interests and building upon them.
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits sex discrimination in schools. Which of the following statements about Title IX is true?
No school has ever been financially penalized by the federal government for violation of Title IX.
In today's society, the idea of the "glass wall"
is expressed by calls for a return to single-sex schools.
In the early 20th century, the education of Mexican American children was hurt by the
frequent migration of Mexican American families.
Second-generation segregation refers to
within-school segregation caused by tracking and administrator and teacher attitudes.
During the colonial period, education typically began in the home and ended with an apprenticeship.
True; Early colonial education began in the home, while an apprenticeship program rounded out a child's education.
Many consider the Boston Latin Grammar School to be the first step on the road to creating higher education in America.
False; The Boston Latin Grammar School was the initial step towards creating the American high school.
Horace Mann was important to the history of American education because his common schools were the first elementary schools open to all.
True; Horace Mann became the nation's leading advocate for the establishment of a common school open to all. Today, we know this common school as the public elementary school.
Throughout our history, teaching has tended to be considered a female profession, since so many women are employed as teachers.
False; Although today's perception is that teaching is predominately a female career, men, in fact, dominated teaching well into the mid-nineteenth century. Teaching was a gendered career, and it was male.
The Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka paved the way for taxpayer support for secondary schools.
False; The Kalamazoo, Michigan Court Case of 1874 held that the taxpayer support of secondary public schools was legal.
African Americans are often called the "model minority" because of the educational and economic gains they have made in the last 50 years.
False; Asian Americans are often stereotyped as the "model minority" due to their academic and economic success in the United States. However, despite the success of some groups of Asian Americans—such as Japanese and Chinese Americans—other groups who have more recently immigrated to the United States—such as Vietnamese and Samoan Americans—have not experienced such success.
The launch of Sputnik accorded the opponents of progressivism a temporary victory regarding what and how students should be taught in the nation's schools.
True; The launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957 put at least a temporary closure on the debate. Although many still argued vociferously over the benefits and shortcomings of progressive education, traditionalists were setting the direction for the nation's curriculum.
Immediately following the Civil War, most of the efforts to educate African Americans were carried out by the Freedmen's Bureau.
False; Most of the schooling of African Americans following the Civil War was carried out by philanthropic societies that worked with the Freedmen's Bureau.
Currently, Hispanics comprise the youngest and fastest growing school-age population in the United States.
True; Comprising 20 percent of the school age population, Hispanic children are the youngest and fastest growing group in American schools.
Asian Americans are the group that frequently face challenges in U.S. schools and society, often due to the influence of events taking place in other parts of the world.
False; Arab Americans often find their quality of life in America influenced by events in other parts of the world.
academy
A classical secondary school in colonial America that emphasized elements of Latin and English grammar schools and by the nineteenth century became more of a college preparatory school. Also the name of the ancient Greek school founded by Plato.
American Spelling Book
An early elementary textbook written by Noah Webster that focused on the alphabet, grammar, and moral lessons.
A Nation at Risk
A 1983 federal report that characterized U.S. schools as mediocre, putting the nation at risk of losing economic and technological ground to other countries. The report called for renewed emphasis on core academic subjects and ushered in the era of "back-to-basics" education.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
U.S. Supreme Court ruling that reversed an earlier "separate but equal" ruling and declared that segrated schooling was inherently unequal and therefore unlawful.
common school
A public, tax-supported school. First established in Massachusetts, the school's purpose was to create a common basis of knowledge for children. It usually refers to a public elementary school.
dame schools
Primary schools in colonial and other early periods in which students were taught by untrained women in the women's own homes.
de facto segregation
The segregation of racial or other groups resulting from circumstances, such as housing patterns, rather than from official policy or law.
de jure segregation
The segregation of racial or other groups on the basis of law, policy, or a practice designed to accomplish such separation.
elementary school
An educational institution for children in grades 1 through 5, 6, or 8, often including kindergarten.
English Classical School
The first free public high school, established in Boston in 1821. The school initially enrolled only boys.
gendered career
A term applied to the gender stereotyping of career and occupational fields. Teaching, for example, was initially gendered male but today is gendered female, particularly at the elementary school level.
hornbook
A single sheet of parchment containing the Lord's Prayer and letters of the alphabet. It was protected by a thin sheath from the flattened horn of a cow and fastened to a wooden board-hence the name. It was used during the colonial era in primary schools.
in loco parentis
Latin term meaning "in place of the parents"; that is, a teacher or school administrator assumes the duties and responsibilities of the parents during the hours the child attends school.
Kalamazoo, Michigan, case
An 1874 U.S. Supreme Court decision that upheld the right of states to tax citizens to provide public secondary education.
kindergarten
A preschool, early childhood educational environment first designed by Froebel in the mid-nineteenth century.
Land Ordinance Act
A nineteenth-century federal law that required newly settled territories to reserve a section of land for schools.
Latin grammar school
A classical secondary school with a Latin and Greek curriculum preparing students for college.
McGuffey Readers
A reading series that, for almost 100 years, promoted moral and patriotic messages and set the practice of reading levels leading toward graded elementary schools.
National Defense Education Act (NDEA)
Federally sponsored programs (1958) to improve science, math, and foreign language instruction in schools.
New England Primer
One of the first textbooks in colonial America, teaching reading and moral messages.
normal schools
A two-year teacher education institution popular in the nineteenth century. Many normal schools were expanded to become today's state colleges and universities.
Northwest Ordinance
Federal legislation that provided for the sale of federal lands in the Northwest territory to support public schools.
Old Deluder Satan Law
Massachusetts colony law requiring teachers in towns of fifty families or more and that schools be built in towns of one hundred families or more. Communities must teach children to read so that they can read the Bible and thwart Satan.
Pedagogy of the Oppressed
The science of teaching.
progressive education
Educational practices emphasizing democracy, student needs, practical activities, and school-community relationships.
second-generation segregation
The separation of a school's multiracial populations through tracking, extracurricular activities, and informal social events.
separate but equal
A legal doctrine that holds that equality of treatment is accorded when the races are provided substantially equal facilities, even though those facilities are separate. This doctrine was ruled unconstitutional in regard to race.
Tenth Amendment
The constitutional Amendment that establishes that areas not specifically mentioned in the Constitution as federal responsibilities are left to state authority. Since education is not mentioned, each state is free to create its own school system.