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Definitions from Module 5# in Apologia Biology.


Anything that has mass and takes up space.


An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen.


A collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons.


Chemicals that result from atoms linking together.

Physical Change

A change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance.

Chemical Change

A change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance.


One of the 3 forms - solid, liquid, or gas - which every substance is capable of attaining.


The random motion of molecules from one area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Semipermeable Membrane

A membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through.


The tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration.


A substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process.

Organic Molecule

A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorus


The process by which living organisms produce larger molecules from smaller ones.


Two different molecules that have the same chemical formula.


Simple carbohydrates that contain 3 to 10 carbon atoms.


Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides.

Dehydration Process

A chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water.


Breaking down complex molecules by the addition of water.


Lacking any affinity to water.

Saturated Fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbohydrates.

Unsaturated Fat

A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms.

Peptide Bond

A bond that links amino acids together in a protein.

Hydrogen Bond

A strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms in specific molecules.


Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides


A measurment of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent

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