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Terms in this set (105)
Human tissue comes to the lab either "fresh" or in ____________
The most common stain for tissues is:
hematoxylin & eosin ("h & e")
Hematoxylin is ____________ charged and stains things _________
POSITIVELY charged and stains thing BLUE
Eosin is ____________ charged and stains things ___________
NEGATIVELY charged and stains things RED
Which stain is best for a
Silver stains are great for staining which two things?
2. Reticulin fibers
Which stain is used to highlight the presence of SUGARS in a sample?
Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)
What is the acid-fast stain used for?
What is the diameter of a red blood cell?
7 microns (7 um)
For reference, motor neurons can be as big as 50-80 microns!
What type of cells push the nuclei to the outer edges of the cell?
adipocytes! (fat cells)
Tissues are composed of what two things?
2. Extracellular matrix
Organs are composed of what two things?
(tissues that carry out the main function of that organ)
2. Stroma (supporting tissue)
"Phase 1" of the embryonic stage is which weeks of the pregnancy?
What happens during the very first week of pregnancy? (Week 1 of the first embryonic stage)
The glob of cells called the
differentiates into the
Which part of the blastocyst will develop into the human embryo?
"Embryoblast* or "inner cell mass" (aka the cells!!!)
What is the main step that happens during
of the pregnancy/first embryonic phase?
Formation of the bilaminar germ disc
(the embryoblast cells finally start to differentiate into the epiblast and hypoblast)
What are the two layers of the bilaminar germ disk?
1. Epiblast (will go on to form baby)
2. Hypoblast (will go on to form placenta)
In general, what occurs during weeks 3 & 4 of the pregnancy/first embryonic stage?
The process of
, which transforms the bilaminar disk into a trilaminar disk (epiblast forms ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm)
What does the epiblast form?
What process is being described:
1. Formation of primitive streak
2. Movement and differentiation of epiblast cells
3. Formation of notochord
What weeks of pregnancy does gastrulation occur?
Weeks 3 & 4 (last part of first embryonic phase)
1. What is the main job of the notochord
2. What is the fate of the notochord
1. Tells the 3 layers what to do next
2. Eventually disappears
Phase 2 of the "embryonic period" is which weeks of the overall pregnancy?
What are the four main steps in phase 2 of the embryonic period? (before embryo turns into fetus)
1. Formation of neural tube
2. Differentiation of mesoderm
3. Folding of embryo
4. Formation of pharyngeal arches
The _______________ will eventually become the spinal cord
What are the three divisions of the mesoderm?
(next to the middle axis)
Lateral plate mesoderm
goes on to form which 3 things?
1. bones & muscles
2. pharyngeal arches
3. connective tissue
(very central structures)
goes on to form
lateral plate mesoderm
goes on to form which 4 things?
1. Heart (forms when outermost edges touch!)
2. Hematopoietic system (blood formation)
3. Pharyngeal arches
4. Connective tissue
The neural tube a.k.a. "neuroectoderm" eventually forms the...
central nervous system
The neural crest cells develops into which three things?
1. Cranial nerves
2. Bones & connective tissue of HEAD
3. Pharyngeal arches
Neural CREST cells -> everything pertaining to HEAD
goes on to form the...
goes on to form the...
lining of the GI tract
This picture shows how the endoderm folds over itself to form that central circular gut
The stomatodeum is another name for the...
What are the two types of clumps of mesoderm on either side of the neural tube?
______ are mesoderm clumps next to the BRAIN which turn into the
muscles of the head and neck
_______ are mesoderm clumps along the SPINAL CORD which turn into
bones and muscles of the back
(little bumps that run all along spinal cord)
How many pharyngeal arches are there?
(each arch has its own cartilage, artery, and nerve!)
1. _____ are the
fold of the arch
2. _____ are the
fold of the arch
1. Grooves (clefts)
Which nerve comes from arch 1?
Trigeminal nerve (Nerve V)
What muscles come from arch 1?
What skeletal structures come from arch 1?
Meckel's cartilage (indicates where the mandible will develop)
What nerve comes from arch 2?
Facial nerve (nerve VII)
Which muscles come from arch 2?
Facial expression muscles
Which skeletal structures come from arch 2?
Reichert's cartilage (stapes, styloid, & lesser hyoid)
Which nerve comes from arch 3?
Which muscles come from arch 3?
Which skeletal structures come from arch 3?
Which nerve comes from arches 4-6?
Vagus nerve (X)
Which muscles come from arches 4-6?
Which skeletal structures come from arches 4-6?
What happens to the second pouch?
"Obliterated by tonsil"
What does the third pouch turn into?
INFERIOR parathyroid & thymus
What do the 4th and 5th pouches turn into?
SUPERIOR parathyroid & ultimobranchial body
What are the two big types of epithelium?
1. Covering (skin)
2. Glandular (glands)
5 functions of epithelium?
Covering of external/internal surfaces
___________ anchors epithelium to the underlying connective tissue
Epithelial cells are very _______ due to intercellular junctions
Epithelial cells are
Avascular (no blood)
What does it mean that epithelial cells demonstrate polarity
You can tell the top & bottom of cell
What are the two layers of the "basement membrane"?
Upper layer: basal lamina
Lower layer: reticular lamina
The basal lamina is composed of which two layers?
1. lamina lucida
2. lamina densa
The lamina lucida (uppermost layer of the basal lamina) is composed of _________
The lamina densa is composed of _________
type IV collagen & perlecan
The reticular lamina (just under the basal lamina) is composed of ___________
What are the 5 types of intercellular junctions that connect epithelial cells?
1. tight junction
2. belt desmosome
3. spot desmosome
5. gap junction
What is the most apical junction in the epithelium?
What are the two families of proteins that form the tight junctions?
(help "clot" tops of epithelial cells)
("occlude" materials from getting between ep cells)
Which intercellular junction is just beneath the tight junctions?
________ are the main type of protein that form the belt desmosomes that make "belts" are the cells
What is the filament that attaches the cytoplasm of the cell to the plaques on the cell?
What are the proteins that bind plaques together on ADJACENT cells?
(types of cadherins)
Where does the term "hemidesmosome" come from
"hemi" = "half" ... because it's only half of a real desmosome (epithelial cell to basal lamina, not to another epithelial cell)
_____________ attach epithelial cells to basal lamina
What protein class attaches the basal portion of the cell to the basal lamina (main protein in hemidesmosomes)
Which type of intercellular junction acts more like a
rather than an adherence structure?
Gap junctions allow ____ and other small molecules to pass through to adjacent cells to facilitate communication
What is the main purpose of microvilli?
increase surface area
for absorption or secretion
What is the waxy coat just above the microvilli called?
Microvilli have a central core of ______ filaments
__________ are long, NON-MOTILE microvilli found in parts of the male reproductive system
The main point of cilia is...
to move! (not absorption)
in a 9+2 configuration called an _________
Cilia insert into _____________ with 9 triplets of microtubules
(the insertion is still a mystery)
What are the three ways epithelial tissue is categorized?
1. Shape of cells
2. Number of cell layers
3. Presence of specialized structures
Cells that look "squashed" are called...
Cells that look square/round are called...
Cells that are tall and slender are called...
One layer of cells is called:
More than one layer of cells is called:
When all cells touch the basal lamina, but not all reach the surface it's called:
What are the three
that can be found on the surface of epithelial cells?
What is the name of the unicellular gland that secretes mucous?
mucous goblet cell
Mucous goblet cells, exocrine glands, and endocrine glands are all types of...
(not covering epithelia)
_______ glands connect with surface epithelium and secrete hormones through
_______ glands do NOT connect with the surface epithelium and secrete hormones through the
docrine glands secrete things
side the body)
What are the three methods of secretion in exocrine glands? (bc endocrine glands don't secrete)
1. Merocrine- secretory stuff leaves via exocytosis (clean and most common)
2. Holocrine- secretory stuff sheds with entire cell (holocrine like holocaust... everything dies)
3. Apocrine- secretory stuff sheds with apical cytoplasm (apocrine takes apical part of cell)
Ion transporting cells, serous secretory cells, mucous secretory cells, neuroendocrine cells, and myoepithelial cells are all types of _______ epithelial cells
! (all dif types of glands)
__________ cells have a lot of mitochondria in basal cytoplasm to provide energy for ion transport
__________ cells have a large nucleus with a lot of rough ER and golgi to secrete watery fluid
serous secretory cells
(secrete serous fluid)
_________ cells also have a lot of rough ER and golgi to produce
(protective & lubricant glycoproteins)
mucous secretory cells
________ cells secrete things that activate the nervous system (i.e. epinephrine)
_______ cells are able to contract and help
whatever is being secreted
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