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Ch. 1 and 2 for ADV. Honors Bio
Terms in this set (80)
what is the scientific study of life
list the 7 properties and processes of life
1)composed of cells
2) different levels of organization
3) use energy
4)respond to their environment
6) reproduce (don't have to do this to be living)
7)adapt to their environment
how would you define life?
an organism that has the 7 properties of life
Define emergent properties
change in characteristics when elements combine. It is also something that emerges at a higher level that wasn't present at a lower level.
where, in life's hierarchy of organization, does the emergent property of LIFE begin?
describe the difference between a producer (autotroph) and a consumer (heterotroph)
autotroph-makes their own food
whats the difference between prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell
Prokaryotic doesn't have a nucleus or membrane; has bound organelles
Eukaryotic- has a nucleus, membrane, and membrane bound organelles
what is a gene
recipe for a protein. Its trait/inherited. Tells you how to make something
a molecule of DNA is known as a chromosome? True or false?
name three domains of life and give an example of each?
1)Archaea-exist in life where life shouldn't live in. Earliest part of life
2)Bacteria-most bacteria aren't harmful (decomposers)
3)Eukarya-everything else from humans to bacteria
The three domains are based on a more molecular division
what is taxonomy
science of the study of classification
is a change over time to help you survive
What's natural selection?
is when nature besides they can live there. Its a dividing force aka survival of the fit enough
____anything that takes up space and has mass
Can elements be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
___ chemical elements are essential to life
what are the main 4 elements that are essential to life
carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen
Atoms are made up of what?
How do you find atomic mass, atomic number, protons, neutrons, electrons
---atomic mass-atomic number=neutrons
---atomic number tells you the number of protons and electrons and sometimes neutrons
name the electric charge, mass, and location for protons, neutrons, and electrons
P-positive,1 dalton, nucleus
N-0,1 dalton, nucleus
E-negative, negligible, orbits the nucleus
Elements in the same row have the same ____of electrons in their ___shells
atoms are electrically _____
elements occur in nature as a mixture of _____
what are isotopes? Are they stable?
atoms with the same number of protons but different in number of neutrons
most of the time they are stable
name the number of electrons for every electron level
2nd level -8
3rd level -8
Chemical behavior depends on number of what?
electrons in outermost shell(=valence electrons)
Do atoms with the same number if valence electrons have similar chemical behaviors?
two or more atoms of SAME or DIFFERENT elements bonded together (Ex: O2)
two or more DIFFERENT elements bonded together (Ex: H2O)
define chemical formula
recipe; tells which kinds of atoms and how many
Describe what polar covalent bond is
-sharing of electrons=unequal
-seen in atoms with DIFFERENCES in electromagnetic activity
-one atom is more positive/ other more negative
give an example of nonpolar covalent bonds
methane electron sharing is equally distributed
What is ionic bonding?
transfer of electrons
Are hydrogen bonds strong or weak between molecules or parts of the same molecule?
Chemical reactions ____ and ____ chemical bonds
make and break
loss of electrons; a molecule that loses an electron is oxidized
gain of electrons; a molecule that gains an electron is reduced
Chemical bonds are _____ and ____/ atoms are rearranged.
broken and reformed
Reactions must be "___"
Chemical reactions rearrange matter; they do not ___ or ___matter. Can chemical reactions be reversed?
create or destroy
rate of formation of products=the rate of breakdown of products
what polar molecule results in bonding between water molecules?
hydrogen bonding between water molecules
what is another cause for emergent properties of water?
how many hydrogen bonds can a water molecule have?
is a hydrogen bond weak?
is a hydrogen bond weak when there is a group of them?
what is the universal solvent
what is a difference between a solvent and solute?
a solvent presents in a greatest amount, while a solute presents in a lesser amount
give me an example of a solution
an example is kool-aid
give me an example of a solvent and solute
what is the difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic?
polar molecules dissolves in water (hydrophilic), while when there is nonpolar it does not dissolve they cluster in water(hydrophobic)
what is hydrophilic exclusion do?
it forces nonpolar molecules to associate with each other
An amphipathic molecule has _____ polar and nonpolar regions
cohesion causes what?
adhesion causes what?
water molecules to stick to other substances
draw capillary action
blood going up the tube
what is the formula for density?
mass of the material in a given volume
during hydrogen bonding, do water molecules move fast or slowly together?
how can ice protect animals in a lake?
it acts like an insulator preventing from freezing to death.
energy of motion
total amount of energy in a system
what does temperature measures?
the average kinetic energy in molecules
high specific heat
takes in ______ to raise 1 gram of water by 1 degree b/c it has hydrogen bonds
what can absorb large amounts of energy?
it heats up slowly and retain heat longer than what?
evaporation of water produces what type of effect?
whats another word for organisms sweating?
pH stand for?
power of hydrogen
pH scale measures what?
degrees of acidity
each difference in one pH unit represents at______ difference in H+ concentration
substance that causes increase in H+ ions
substance that causes increase in OH- ions
dissociation of water molecules
come apart and form charged ions
H20----> H+ OH
H3O = hydronium ion
what is the most important buffer for maintaining acid-base balance in the blood?
carbonic acid- bicarbonate buffer system
what do buffers do?
they are weak acids or weak bases that act by combining reversibly with H+
it minimizes charges in the concentration of H+ and OH-
what do buffers do for H+
acts as a reservoir
you can donate it to solutions when the concentration increases
buffers control what and do they maintain homeostasis?
major buffer system in blood maintains blood pH from ____ and ______
7.38 and 7.42
carbonic acid (weak acid)
what is the effect of strenuous exercise, fatty acid metabolism, and acidic drug overdose?
what is the buffer response?
increase in ['H+]
response--- equilibrium shifts to left
H2O +CO2 <---- H2CO3<----- HCO3 +H+
body organs help maintain balance to do what?
brain signals the lungs to breathe more deeply and slowly ----> removes more CO2 to raise pH
kidneys removes HCO3--- causes shift to right and pH decreases (H+ increases)
what is the effect of hyperventilation?
If it has ___ or ____ in a covalent bond then it will be ____ _____ bond (unequal sharing) ex. H20
Oxygen or Nitrogen
Recommended textbook explanations
Foundations of Physical Science (Florida Edition)
Tom C. Hsu
Chemistry Matter and Change
McLaughlin, Thompson, Zike
Chemistry: Matter & Change, Florida
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