16: The Era of Reconstruction, 1865-1877
Terms in this set (39)
Reconstruction agency established in 1865 to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, health care, and landowning.
Laws passed in southern states to restrict the rights of former slaves; in reaction, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the 14th Amendment and set up military governments in southern states that refused to ratify the amendment.
1792-1868. As one of the leaders of the Radical Republicans, he argued that the former Confederate States should be viewed as conquered provinces, which were subject to demands of the conquerors. He believed that all of southern society needed to be changed and he supported the abolition of slavery
1866. Guaranteed rights of citizenship to former slaves, in words similar to the Civil Rights Act of 1866
1870. This forbids states to deny any person the right to vote on grounds of "race, color or previous condition of servitude" Former Confederate states were required to ratify this amendment before they could be readmitted to the Union
Northern emigrants who participated in the Republican governments of the reconstructed South
White southern Republicans- some former Unionists- who served in Reconstruction governments
Election of 1868
Johnson had alienated many of his constituents and had been impeached by Congress. Although Johnson kept his office, his presidency was crippled. After numerous ballots, the Democrats nominated former New York Governor Horatio Seymour to take on the Republican candidate, Civil War general Ulysses S. Grant. Grant won
illegal manipulation of contracts by a construction and finance company associated with the building of the Union Pacific Railroad (1865-69); the incident became a symbol of post-Civil War corruption with the nickname "Era of Good Stealings"
1811-1872. In reaction to Radical Reconstruction and corruption President Ulysses S. Grant's administration, a group of Republicans broke from the party to form the Liberal Republicans. In 1872, the Liberal Republicans chose as their presidential candidate ____, who ran on the platform of civil service reform and condemning the Republican's Reconstruction policy
Compromise of 1877
Deal made by a special congressional commission on March 2, 1877 to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876; Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, who had lost the popular vote, was declared the winner in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, marking the end of Reconstruction
Panic of 1873.
Major economic collapse caused by Pres Grant's efforts to remove greenbacks from circulation; the resultant depression, in which thousands of businesses closed and millions lost their jobs, was then the worst in the nation's history
Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan that allowed a southern state to form a new government after 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States, they freed slaves and wrote new state constitutions
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Oath to be taken by southerners to testify that they had never voluntarily aided or abetted the rebellion
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
Radical Republican plan for Reconstruction that required 50% of a state's 1860 voters to take an "iron clad" oath of allegiance and a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials; pocket-vetoed by Lincoln.
13th Amendment (1865)
Abolition of slavery w/o compensation for slave-owners
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price. BUT in this chapter he was also a target of the Booth assassination plan.
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863)
Lincoln set up a process for political Reconstruction, as in reconstructing the state governments in the South so that Unionists were in charge rather than secessionists; full presidential pardons for most southerners who either took an oath of allegiance to the Union and the Constitution, a state government could be reestablished and accepted as legitimate by the US president as soon as at least 10 percent of the voters in the state took the loyalty oath, each southern state needed to rewrite Constitution to eliminate existence of slavery
Radical Republican Reconstruction
punish south, protect former slaves; US military occupation of South, Confederate military leaders needed pardon to hold office, protect Blacks right to vote
Dominant agricultural model in the post-Civil War South. Is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (e.g., 50% of the crop). Crop Lien could also be used to gain goods from local merchants on the advance of paying with crop profits.
Poll Tax, Literacy Test, Grandfather Clause
The segregated "Jim Crow" South used these to keep blacks from voting
If blacks tried to speak up for their rights, they would be attacked by the KKK
Civil Rights Act
This secured the rights of freedmen., it gave citizenship to African- Americans prior to passage of the 14th.
Conservative white Democrats, many of them planters or businessmen, who reclaimed control of the South following the end of Reconstruction
Force Acts of 1870 and 1871
Passed by Congress following a wave of Ku Klux Klan violence, the acts banned clan membership, prohibited the use of intimidation to prevent blacks from voting, and gave the U.S. military the authority to enforce the acts.
First Black Mississippi senator. He was elected to the seat that had been occupied by Jefferson Davis when the South seceded. LA
"waving the bloody shirt"
The use of Civil War imagery by political candidates and parties to draw votes to their side of the ticket.
Ku Klux Klan
White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties
Reconstruction-Era African American organization that worked to educate Southern blacks about civic life, built black schools and churches, and represented African American interests before government and employers. It also campaigned on behalf of Republican candidates and recruited local militias to protect blacks from white intimidation.
National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA)
group formed by Anthony and Stanton that fought for an amendment that would grant women the right to vote.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He was strong on stopping the KKK but too trusting of the corrupt politicians around him.
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
In 1873, armed whites assaulted the town of Colfax, Louisiana, with a small cannon, killing hundreds of former slaves and fifty black militia members after they surrendered.
Whiskey Ring Scandal
Before they were caught, a group of mostly Republican politicians were able to siphon off millions of dollars in federal taxes on liquor; the scheme involved an extensive network of bribes involving tax collectors, storekeepers, and others.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote
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THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
11: A Nation on the Move: Westward Expansion (1800-1860)
12: Cotton is King: The Antebellum South (1800-1860)
13: Antebellum Idealism and Reform Impulses, 1820-1860
15: The Civil War