The minimum daily amount of carbohydrate that supports central nervous system function is about:
Before general surgical procedures, oral food and fluids are withheld from patients for at least:
8 to 12 hours.
The use of a low-residue or residue-free diet may be recommended preoperatively for clients:
scheduled for gastrointestinal surgery.
Food present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of general surgery will increase the client's risk for:
aspiration or vomiting.
Protein is important in the postoperative recovery period for tissue synthesis and:
good immune function.
Postsurgical clients should resume oral feedings as soon as possible to:
provide adequate nutrition.
An important function of carbohydrates in the postoperative period is to:
spare protein for tissue synthesis.
Foods allowed on a clear liquid diet include:
broth, Clear liquids diets do not include dairy products.
Foods allowed on a full-liquid diet include:
full liquid diets only include foods that are smooth and fairly liquid.
If a client has had surgery of the head, neck, or throat and can only swallow a limited amount of food, their oral diet should include:
energy- and protein-dense soft foods.
Clients who have undergone radical neck or facial surgery are often fed using:
a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube.
When a client has the most radical form of total gastrectomy (Billroth II), the stomach is excised and the esophagus is joined to the:
In the first few weeks after a gastrectomy, the recommended diet is:
small, frequent meals that can be easily digested.
The physiologic basis for symptoms associated with dumping syndrome is that:
concentrated hyperosmolar fluids draw water into the intestine, decreasing blood volume.
Nutritional strategies that are helpful for management of dumping syndrome include:
offering fluids between rather than with meals.
The surgical procedure in which a portion of the colon is attached to an opening in the abdominal wall is called a(n):
The name of the surgical procedure in which the ileum is attached to an opening in the abdominal wall is called a(n):
Dietary recommendations for patients with chylous ascites or chylothorax include:
replacement of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) with MCTs.
A burn that causes reddening and blistering with cell death in the dermis is classified as a:
Nutrients lost in the initial period following a major burn injury are:
fluids, electrolytes, and protein.
In the first 24 to 48 hours after the burn injury, patients with second- or third-degree burns that cover 15% to 20% or more of their total body surface usually require:
IV fluid and electrolytes.
The IV solution administered during the initial stage of a severe burn injury to prevent hypovolemia is:
For patients with burns covering more than 20% of total body surface area, resting energy expenditure (REE) exceeds that calculated using the Harris-Benedict equations by about:
50% to 60%.
For patients in the flow phase of metabolic stress, hyperglycemia should be treated by:
use of exogenous insulin.
Fat intake in patients who have experienced burns or multiple trauma should be:
12% to 15% of total kilocalories (kcalories or kcal).
Oral intake is generally adequate in adults who have burns covering less than:
25% of the total body surface area.