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Nutrition Ch 17

chapter 17
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The minimum daily amount of carbohydrate that supports central nervous system function is about:
150 g.
Before general surgical procedures, oral food and fluids are withheld from patients for at least:
8 to 12 hours.
The use of a low-residue or residue-free diet may be recommended preoperatively for clients:
scheduled for gastrointestinal surgery.
Food present in the gastrointestinal tract at the time of general surgery will increase the client's risk for:
aspiration or vomiting.
Protein is important in the postoperative recovery period for tissue synthesis and:
good immune function.
Postsurgical clients should resume oral feedings as soon as possible to:
provide adequate nutrition.
A good guideline for evaluating fluid balance is:
daily weights.
During the postoperative period, the primary source of energy should be:
carbohydrates.
An important function of carbohydrates in the postoperative period is to:
spare protein for tissue synthesis.
A vitamin that is necessary for formation of scar tissue during the healing process is:
vitamin C.
The ideal method for estimating energy needs is:
indirect calorimetry.
After surgery, protein intake may be limited if the patient has impaired:
kidney function.
The amount of dextrose in 3 L of 5% dextrose solution is:
150 g.
1 L 5% dextrose solution provides 50 g dextrose; therefore, 3 L provides 150 g.
true or false
Preoperative or postoperative blood losses may result in a deficiency of:
iron.
Postoperatively, intravenous (IV) fluids provide:
fluids and some energy.
Foods allowed on a clear liquid diet include:
broth, Clear liquids diets do not include dairy products.
Foods allowed on a full-liquid diet include:
full liquid diets only include foods that are smooth and fairly liquid.
Immune-enhancing enteral formulas may be enriched with:
omega-3 fatty acids and arginine.
If a client has had surgery of the head, neck, or throat and can only swallow a limited amount of food, their oral diet should include:
energy- and protein-dense soft foods.
Clients who have undergone radical neck or facial surgery are often fed using:
a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube.
When a client has the most radical form of total gastrectomy (Billroth II), the stomach is excised and the esophagus is joined to the:
jejunum.
In the first few weeks after a gastrectomy, the recommended diet is:
small, frequent meals that can be easily digested.
The physiologic basis for symptoms associated with dumping syndrome is that:
concentrated hyperosmolar fluids draw water into the intestine, decreasing blood volume.
Symptoms of dumping syndrome are most likely to occur after patients consume:
simple carbohydrates.
The recommended diet for patients with dumping syndrome is low in:
sugar.
Nutritional strategies that are helpful for management of dumping syndrome include:
offering fluids between rather than with meals.
If more than 50% of the small intestine is removed, patients may develop:
short-bowel syndrome.
The surgical procedure in which a portion of the colon is attached to an opening in the abdominal wall is called a(n):
colostomy.
The name of the surgical procedure in which the ileum is attached to an opening in the abdominal wall is called a(n):
ileostomy.
The recommended diet for most patients with ostomies is:
normal.
Gastric bypass is recommended only for patients who need to lose more than:
100 lb.
Dietary recommendations for patients with chylous ascites or chylothorax include:
replacement of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) with MCTs.
A burn that causes reddening and blistering with cell death in the dermis is classified as a:
second-degree burn.
Nutrients lost in the initial period following a major burn injury are:
fluids, electrolytes, and protein.
In the first 24 to 48 hours after the burn injury, patients with second- or third-degree burns that cover 15% to 20% or more of their total body surface usually require:
IV fluid and electrolytes.
The IV solution administered during the initial stage of a severe burn injury to prevent hypovolemia is:
lactated Ringer's.
For patients with burns covering more than 20% of total body surface area, resting energy expenditure (REE) exceeds that calculated using the Harris-Benedict equations by about:
50% to 60%.
For patients in the flow phase of metabolic stress, hyperglycemia should be treated by:
use of exogenous insulin.
During the ebb phase following thermal injury, overall metabolism is:
low.
The flow phase following thermal injury is characterized by:
increased nitrogen excretion.
Fat intake in patients who have experienced burns or multiple trauma should be:
12% to 15% of total kilocalories (kcalories or kcal).
Oral intake is generally adequate in adults who have burns covering less than:
25% of the total body surface area.
The preferred type of enteral feeding for burn patients is:
nasoenteric.
After extensive surgery or burns, protein needs are usually:
1.5 to 2.0 g/kg body weight per day.
Conditionally essential amino acids include:
L-arginine and L-glutamine.
Omega-3 fatty acids may be important during periods of metabolic stress because they:
enhance immune function and reduce inflammation.