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Microsoft Exam 98-349 / Windows Operating System Fundamentals - Glossary
Terms in this set (103)
The components and features of a system intended to make it easy to use for those with various physical challenges.
The Aero interface feature that allows all windows other than the active window to be minimized by shaking the active window. You shake the window by clicking in the title bar to select the window and then dragging back-and-forth rapidly.
The Aero interface feature that allows you to automatically position a window at specific screen locations by dragging the window to a screen edge.
A software solution that scans for and removes viruses and possibly other malware as well. Solutions may scan files on the drive and drive sectors as well as live access files from downloads and email attachments.
An application designed to be launched from within the Control Panel interface.
A generic term for a collection of processes and data files used to perform a defined function.
A new method provided in Windows 7 Enterprise Edition and Windows Server 2008 R2 for application restrictions. The replacement for Software Restriction Policies in enterprise deployments.
The process used to prove a person or object is who or what he or it claims to be.
The process used to grant or deny access to a resource by a person or object.
An application that either provides access to the network in spite of firewall rules or leaves an opening for later re-entry into a system.
The process used to archive data and system settings on a location separate from the live system.
Extra software that comes with computers but is not necessarily required for functionality.
A phrase used to indicate that a business or organization is able to continue with operations. Technologies related to business continuity include backup and restore operations, fault-tolerant systems, and security solutions.
An application used to perform mathematical operations that is included with Windows.
The traditional text-mode interface to the Windows operating system. The Windows Command Prompt is similar to DOS, but is either a 32-bit or a 64-bit compiled executable depending on the version of the Windows operating system in use.
The connection between two computers on a network, which may consist of multiple intermediary links and devices.
A Windows OS interface that provides access to administration, configuration, and information tools for support professionals and users. The modern Control Panel consists of applets, standard executable files, and web pages.
A software module that communicates with the device and the operating system.
The location for device drivers in the Windows OS. The OS searches this location for device drivers when new devices are installed.
The permissions resulting after combining permissions from the user account and any groups to which the user belongs.
The process of converting data from its normal state to a state unreadable without a translation or decryption key.
An application used to view, search, filter, and manage event logs in Windows operating systems.
File Allocation Table (FAT)
The Windows filesystem that provides backward compatibility with older versions of Windows and DOS, but does not provide security or large drive support.
File Allocation Table (FAT) 32
The Windows filesystem first introduced with Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0 that allows for access to larger drives but does not provide enhanced security features as NTFS does.
A device or software solution that filters communications and allows only appropriate communications through. The Windows Firewall is Microsoft's implementation of a firewall within the Windows OS.
The feature that allows for task switching with large 3D previews and that is accessed with the Windows key+Tab shortcut.
A special application that resides on the Windows Desktop.
The Windows PowerShell cmdlet used to retrieve a list of available PowerShell cmdlets and functions.
The Windows PowerShell cmdlet used to retrieve help and examples for the use of other cmdlets.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
A method used to interact with the operating system and applications using graphical elements rather than text-based commands.
A collection of peer-to-peer networking partners that share resources with each other with the addition of password protection and simpler sharing mechanisms.
A single, cumulative package that includes one or more files that are used to address a problem in a product and are cumulative at the binary and file level.
The virtualization layer that sits between the hardware and the operating system in a bare metal virtual machine solution.
Meaningful data placed in context. More specifically, it is a structured collection of symbols with interpretive value used to transmit knowledge.
Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL)
A set of documents that define best practices for technology management.
The web browser bundled with Windows. Windows 7 ships with version 8.0 of this browser.
The Windows PowerShell cmdlet used to execute commands against remote computers.
In most operating systems, the component responsible for process and memory management and resource allocation.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A group of connected computers using fast or high-speed connections and sharing a locally managed network infrastructure.
A Windows accessibility component that allows the user to selectively magnify areas of the screen for easy visualization.
Master File Table (MFT)
The file or database stored on an NTFS volume to track the other files and folders stored on the volume.
Microsoft Enterprise Desktop Virtualization (Med-V) allows applications to run in a Windows XP-based application compatibility workspace. Applications appear as local applications on the Start menu and operate as if they were installed on the local machine.
The component in a computer, also called random access memory (RAM), used to store temporary data for application use.
Microsoft Management Console (MMC)
A special console interface designed to standardize administration tool interfaces. Custom consoles may be created to allow for the needs of different types of administrators and support professionals.
The enhanced Microsoft updating solution that also supports updating Microsoft Office and other applications.
An application used to view and configured settings mostly related to system startup in Windows. Also called System Configuration.
A Windows accessibility component that reads text on the screen to the user as speech.
Network File System (NFS)
A filesystem access method designed to allow for data access across the network.
Storage that is retained when power is removed.
An application used to create simple text files in Windows.
NT Filesystem (NTFS)
The Windows filesystem that supports very large drives and security permissions.
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
A solution that provides access to multiple database systems through a standardized set of communication methods and specific drivers for each system.
Open System Interconnect (OSI) model
A networking model that includes seven layers describing the operations required for network communications.
An application used for image editing in Windows.
The capabilities granted to users in relation to files, shares, and printers.
A social engineering attack that uses email or other messaging systems, including telephony, to trick individuals into providing information or taking actions.
The physical printer that is connected to the computer or the network.
An instance of application code including the resources it requires for operations.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
An internal collection of servers used to provide certificates for authentication and encryption on the network.
Recovery Point Objective (RPO)
The maximum time period between the last backup and a potential failure point.
Recovery Time Objective (RTO)
The maximum time that a data restore process can take.
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID)
A storage technology that utilizes multiple drives in an array to provide improved performance, fault tolerance, or both.
A Windows feature that allows support professionals to connect to and potentially interact with the Windows Desktop across the network. Remote Assistance requires an invitation from the user.
A Windows feature that allows support professionals to connect to and interact with the Windows Desktop across the network without requiring an invitation from the user.
When dealing with software applications or operating systems, the list of hardware or software components required to use the software or operating system.
The process used to recover data and system settings from an archive location to the live system.
A collection of configuration settings and filesystem states used to recover a Windows 7 computer to a historical point in time.
A special boot option allowing the Windows computer to start with a limited set of drivers for recovery purposes.
The dimensions of the screen in width and height. For example, the resolution of 1280×1024 indicates 1280 pixels in width and 1024 pixels in height.
The state in which an acceptable level of risk is achieved through the use of policies and procedures that can be monitored and managed.
An application or innate operating system component that provides services (capabilities) to the network, the local machine, or both.
A network or local user account that is used by a service to receive permissions for access to the local machine or network resources.
A tested, cumulative set of all hotfixes, security updates, critical updates, and updates.
An application compatibility fix for Windows 7 computers.
A link to a file, folder, or other item that is placed on the Desktop or Start menu. Also, a keyboard keystroke sequence used to quickly access an application of OS feature.
A component that can be added to a custom MMC console and that can be used to manage the local computer or a remote computer.
An application used to capture the screen and create a screenshot.
An attack that exploits human behavior to gain information for the personal gain of the attacker.
A Windows accessibility component that provides a visual cue for the hearing impaired any time a system sound is played.
Storage Area Network (SAN)
A specially designed and installed network used for storage access. Usually based on Fibre Channel or iSCSI.
An interface used to manage the synchronization processes for offline files.
A complete copy of the drives required to start and operate a Windows 7 computer.
An application used to view and report on configuration settings and other information in Windows.
A feature of Windows 7 that provides for the use of system restore points. Also sometimes called System Restore.
The process of analyzing all interdependent components that comprise a system.
An application used to manage running processes on Windows operating systems.
The process of discovering the unknown cause and solution for a known problem.
A general term used for solutions like Remote Desktop Services with Hyper-V or Citrix that provide virtual desktops or virtual applications running on remote servers.
A computer system that exists in the memory of another physical computer and can run a separate operating system.
A method used to run multiple operating systems concurrently on a single physical machine. Each operating system runs in a virtual machine.
A computer program with the ability to regenerate itself by attaching to other applications or documents and with a mission or purpose to perform some action on the machine.
Storage that is lost when power is removed.
Windows Memory Diagnostics
A boot-time option that allows for the thorough testing of memory (RAM) in a Windows computer.
Windows Memory Diagnostics
A boot-time option that allows for the thorough testing of memory (RAM) in a Windows computer.
Windows Mobility Center
An interface used to configure options that improve performance or battery life for mobile computers. Windows Mobility Center also provides a simple feature for enabling or disabling presentation features.
Windows Photo Viewer
An application used to view images in Windows.
A new text-mode interface to the Windows operating system based on .NET that provides powerful scripting and remote administration capabilities.
Windows Remote Management (WinRM)
A service framework that allows access to remote computers for administration and management purposes. A service used by Windows PowerShell and the Event Viewer for remote subscriptions to events.
Windows Server Update Service (WSUS)
A server role in Windows Server 2008 and R2 that downloads updates from Microsoft's website and makes them available to internal systems on a network.
The basic Microsoft updating solution that supports operating system and device driver updates.
An application used to create text files with enhanced formatting and possible images in Windows.
A collection of peer-to-peer networking partners that share resources with each other.
A computer program with the ability to regenerate itself without attaching to other applications and with the same ill intent as a virus.
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