Chapter 9

Market revolution
This was started by the Transportation Revolution (a massive construction of canals and roads). By 1860, nearly 1/3 of U.S. people lived in the Midwest. Here, an economy was created that slowly began to resemble the northeast. It opened new land for settlers, lowered transportation costs, made selling products easier, linked farmers to national/world markets, and made farmers major consumers of manufactured goods.
Industrial Revolution (1790-1820)
During this time, merchants and manufacturers built factories and reorganized work routines. The increase in transportation and the Commonwealth system allowed manufacturers to be sold everywhere, and formers luxury items were now apart of every day life.
Division of labor
It was a new, more efficient system used in manufacturing that assigned specific tasks to each worker. This greatly improved productivity, but also decreased morale because there was no sense of achievement.
This was used for products that were not suited for the outwork system, and concentrated production under one roof.
Craft workers v. wage earners
Craft workers were artisans with a specific craft or skill. They viewed themselves as small-scale producers who were equal to one another and free to work for themselves. Wage earners worked under the control and direction of their employers. Craft workers developed an "artisan republican ethic"--a collective identity based on liberty and equality.
British v. American industry
The U.S. had more abundant natural resources. Although both had a textile industry, Britain had cheaper labor and could, for a while at least, sell more products for a lower price. The U.S., however, improved on British technology, won help from the federal government, and an even cheaper form of labor (young women--Waltham plan).
Machine tools/interchangeable parts
These were machines that made parts for other machines
Labor theory of value
This theory proposed that the price of a good should reflect the labor required to make it, and that most of the money from its sale should go to the individual workers who made it.
Changes in class structure
Rise of the middle class and wage earning class
Benevolent empire
Many members of the middle class and their congressional and Presbyterian ministers launched programs of social reforms known as the Benevolent empire. They targeted drunkenness, adultery, prostitution, and crime, but established large scale organizations to implement the evils. They insisted that people who had experienced saving grace should provide moral guidance and charity to the less fortunate